Normal Growth and Development. Why do Nurses need to Understand Child Development?. Freud- Psychosexual Development. Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage. Theories of Child Development. Erikson - The Four Ages of Childhood Infancy trust vs mistrust
Erikson -The Four Ages of Childhood
Piaget- Theory of Intellectual Development
(Egocentrism, Transductive reasoning,
Centration, Animism, Magical Thinking)
#1 Children are competent
#2 Children resemble one another
#3 Each child is unique
Development is Directional
Which body systems grow most rapidly during early childhood?
There are recognized critical (sensitive) periods of development
~ 12 Months
Parallel play (won’t share!)Toddler Years include…..
Transitional objects new baby)
Temper TantrumsToddler years include…..
Physiologic anorexia new baby)
If on a food jag may only eat yogurt for days!
Provide for self feeding: finger foods/spoonNutrition – Toddler years
Toddlers are at high risk for injuries r/t their increasing cognitive and motor skills curiosity. What measures could prevent injury from the following hazards?
Associative Play with strong imaginative & dramatic themes …like to assume adult roles in playPreschool years include….Associative Play
girls ~10yrs, boys ~13 yrs
Kids want to know: Why do I wake up at night with leg cramps?
Infant: consistent contact/feeding, crib rails @ all times …like to assume adult roles in play
Toddler: allow transitional objects, prepare for “NO!”; remember can’t “conserve” when giving liquid meds, FULL CRIB RAILS
Preschooler: “dramatic play” to explain care-”you listen to Daddy’s heart 1st, apply concept of animism!
School Age: can give more detailed explanations, same age roommate
**Involve parents (rooming in) for all age groups
**Select age appropriate play activitiesNursing Interventions: Health Care Setting
Prevent aspiration-especially 1st year
Prevent falls-from birth
Prevent Poisonings-especially after walking & during toddlers years
Prevent Burns-especially after walking and thru school age
Prevent injury from firearms especially school-age
Prevent drowning- especially after walking
Implement Car Safety-from birth