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Normal Growth and Development. Why do Nurses need to Understand Child Development?. Freud- Psychosexual Development. Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage. Theories of Child Development. Erikson - The Four Ages of Childhood Infancy trust vs mistrust

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Presentation Transcript
freud psychosexual development
Freud-Psychosexual Development
  • Oral stage
  • Anal stage
  • Phallic stage
  • Latency stage
theories of child development
Theories of Child Development

Erikson -The Four Ages of Childhood

  • Infancy trust vs mistrust
  • Toddlerhood autonomy vs shame and doubt
  • Preschooler initiative vs guilt
  • School-age industry vs inferiority
theories of child development1
Theories of Child Development

Piaget- Theory of Intellectual Development

  • Sensoriomotor Thought 0-2 yrs
  • Preoperational Thought 2-7 yrs

(Egocentrism, Transductive reasoning,

Centration, Animism, Magical Thinking)

  • Concrete Operations 7-11 yrs
  • Formal Operations >11 yrs
basic principles of child development
Basic Principles of Child Development

#1 Children are competent

#2 Children resemble one another

#3 Each child is unique

slide8

Body midline

#4

Development is Directional

Cephalocaudal

Which body systems grow most rapidly during early childhood?

Proxiimodistal

5 development is timely
#5 Development is Timely

There are recognized critical (sensitive) periods of development

factors influencing g d
Factors Influencing G&D

ENVIRONMENT

  • Socioeconomic level
  • Parent-child relationship
  • Family position
  • Health/Genetics
  • Nutrition
  • Genetics
  • Temperament
infant 1 12 months t rust vs mistrust
INFANT 1 –12 monthsTrust vs Mistrust
  • Double birth weight at 6 months
  • Triple at 12 months
  • Rolls over 4 months
  • Holds head steady at 6 months
  • Sitting 6-8 months
  • Walking 12 months
  • Pincer grasp 10 months
  • 2 words by 12 months
  • Solid food @ 6 months
  • Object permanence
  • Separation anxiety
  • Risk for aspiration

6 Months

8 Months

slide14

First Steps

~ 12 Months

nursing management infancy
Nursing Management-Infancy
  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations
  • Teach nutrition
  • Sleep patterns
  • Foster attachment
  • Explore family support systems
  • Safety
nutrition in infancy
Nutrition in Infancy
  • Breast milk a/o formula 1st year
  • Solids @ 4-6 months-iron fortified rice cereal 1st
  • Next veggies, fruit, then meat 8-10months
toddler 1 3 years
Toddler 1 – 3 years

NO!

  • 2 word sentences by age 2
  • Screening for lead poisoning
  • Decreased appetite

(physiologic anorexia)

  • Temper tantrums
  • Toilet training
  • Negativism
nursing management toddler
Nursing Management-Toddler
  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations
  • Growth & Development
  • Toilet Training
  • Negativism
  • Encourage gross motor skills
  • Sibling Rivalry
  • Regression
  • Sleep patterns
  • Safety
nutrition toddler years
Physiologic anorexia

Food jags

Serving amounts?

If on a food jag may only eat yogurt for days!

Provide for self feeding: finger foods/spoon

Nutrition – Toddler years
slide23

Toddlers are at high risk for injuries r/t their increasing cognitive and motor skills curiosity. What measures could prevent injury from the following hazards?

  • Falls
  • Poisoning
  • Burns
  • Motor Vehicle Crashes
  • Drowning
preschooler 3 5 years
Preschooler 3-5 years
  • Body contour changes
  • Social/language skills ^
  • Appetite is diminished
  • Fear of dark, mutilation, and abandonment
  • Self-centered
  • Magical Thinking “If I am mad at Mommy & she gets sick, I caused it!”
  • Bedtime issues
nursing management pre school
Nursing Management-Pre School
  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations
  • Teach nutrition
  • Sleep patterns
  • Discuss G&D
  • Family
  • Fears
  • Safety
school age 6 12 years
School-age 6-12 years
  • Slimmer, stronger, ^ fine motor skills
  • Growth spurt/prepubescent period

girls ~10yrs, boys ~13 yrs

  • Permanent teeth erupt
  • Latch-key children
  • Concrete thought
  • Cooperative Play/Rules/Routine
  • Obesity risk begins
  • Peer group bigger influence
  • Sexuality/Inappropriate touch
nursing management school age
Nursing Management-School Age
  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations
  • Teach nutrition
  • Sleep patterns
  • Discuss G&D
  • Family
  • Promote skill development in school, sports and play
  • Safety

Kids want to know: Why do I wake up at night with leg cramps?

nursing interventions health care setting
Infant: consistent contact/feeding, crib rails @ all times

Toddler: allow transitional objects, prepare for “NO!”; remember can’t “conserve” when giving liquid meds, FULL CRIB RAILS

Preschooler: “dramatic play” to explain care-”you listen to Daddy’s heart 1st, apply concept of animism!

School Age: can give more detailed explanations, same age roommate

**Involve parents (rooming in) for all age groups

**Select age appropriate play activities

Nursing Interventions: Health Care Setting
safety in childhood
Safety in Childhood

Prevent aspiration-especially 1st year

Prevent falls-from birth

Prevent Poisonings-especially after walking & during toddlers years

Prevent Burns-especially after walking and thru school age

Prevent injury from firearms especially school-age

Prevent drowning- especially after walking

Implement Car Safety-from birth

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