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Normal Growth and Development. Why do Nurses need to Understand Child Development?. Freud- Psychosexual Development. Oral stage Anal stage Phallic stage Latency stage. Theories of Child Development. Erikson - The Four Ages of Childhood Infancy trust vs mistrust

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Normal growth and development

Normal Growth and Development

Freud psychosexual development
Freud-Psychosexual Development

  • Oral stage

  • Anal stage

  • Phallic stage

  • Latency stage

Theories of child development
Theories of Child Development

Erikson -The Four Ages of Childhood

  • Infancy trust vs mistrust

  • Toddlerhood autonomy vs shame and doubt

  • Preschooler initiative vs guilt

  • School-age industry vs inferiority

Theories of child development1
Theories of Child Development

Piaget- Theory of Intellectual Development

  • Sensoriomotor Thought 0-2 yrs

  • Preoperational Thought 2-7 yrs

    (Egocentrism, Transductive reasoning,

    Centration, Animism, Magical Thinking)

  • Concrete Operations 7-11 yrs

  • Formal Operations >11 yrs

Basic principles of child development
Basic Principles of Child Development

#1 Children are competent

#2 Children resemble one another

#3 Each child is unique

Body midline


Development is Directional


Which body systems grow most rapidly during early childhood?


5 development is timely
#5 Development is Timely

There are recognized critical (sensitive) periods of development

Factors influencing g d
Factors Influencing G&D


  • Socioeconomic level

  • Parent-child relationship

  • Family position

  • Health/Genetics

  • Nutrition

  • Genetics

  • Temperament

Infant 1 12 months t rust vs mistrust
INFANT 1 –12 monthsTrust vs Mistrust

  • Double birth weight at 6 months

  • Triple at 12 months

  • Rolls over 4 months

  • Holds head steady at 6 months

  • Sitting 6-8 months

  • Walking 12 months

  • Pincer grasp 10 months

  • 2 words by 12 months

  • Solid food @ 6 months

  • Object permanence

  • Separation anxiety

  • Risk for aspiration

6 Months

8 Months

First Steps

~ 12 Months

Nursing management infancy
Nursing Management-Infancy

  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations

  • Teach nutrition

  • Sleep patterns

  • Foster attachment

  • Explore family support systems

  • Safety

Nutrition in infancy
Nutrition in Infancy

  • Breast milk a/o formula 1st year

  • Solids @ 4-6 months-iron fortified rice cereal 1st

  • Next veggies, fruit, then meat 8-10months

Toddler 1 3 years
Toddler 1 – 3 years


  • 2 word sentences by age 2

  • Screening for lead poisoning

  • Decreased appetite

    (physiologic anorexia)

  • Temper tantrums

  • Toilet training

  • Negativism

Toddler years include

Sibling Rivalry (expect regressive behavior with arrival of new baby)

Parallel play (won’t share!)

Toddler Years include…..

Toddler years include1

Transitional objects new baby)

Temper Tantrums

Toddler years include…..

Toddler years include parallel play
Toddler Years include…. new baby) Parallel Play

Nursing management toddler
Nursing Management-Toddler new baby)

  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations

  • Growth & Development

  • Toilet Training

  • Negativism

  • Encourage gross motor skills

  • Sibling Rivalry

  • Regression

  • Sleep patterns

  • Safety

Nutrition toddler years

Physiologic anorexia new baby)

Food jags

Serving amounts?

If on a food jag may only eat yogurt for days!

Provide for self feeding: finger foods/spoon

Nutrition – Toddler years

Toddlers are at high risk for injuries r/t their increasing cognitive and motor skills curiosity. What measures could prevent injury from the following hazards?

  • Falls

  • Poisoning

  • Burns

  • Motor Vehicle Crashes

  • Drowning

Preschooler 3 5 years
Preschooler cognitive and motor skills curiosity. What measures could prevent injury from the following hazards?3-5 years

  • Body contour changes

  • Social/language skills ^

  • Appetite is diminished

  • Fear of dark, mutilation, and abandonment

  • Self-centered

  • Magical Thinking “If I am mad at Mommy & she gets sick, I caused it!”

  • Bedtime issues

Preschool years include associative play

Associative Play with strong imaginative & dramatic themes …like to assume adult roles in play

Preschool years include….Associative Play

Nursing management pre school
Nursing Management-Pre School …like to assume adult roles in play

  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations

  • Teach nutrition

  • Sleep patterns

  • Discuss G&D

  • Family

  • Fears

  • Safety

School age 6 12 years
School-age …like to assume adult roles in play 6-12 years

  • Slimmer, stronger, ^ fine motor skills

  • Growth spurt/prepubescent period

    girls ~10yrs, boys ~13 yrs

  • Permanent teeth erupt

  • Latch-key children

  • Concrete thought

  • Cooperative Play/Rules/Routine

  • Obesity risk begins

  • Peer group bigger influence

  • Sexuality/Inappropriate touch

Nursing management school age
Nursing Management-School Age …like to assume adult roles in play

  • Discuss age-appropriate recommendations

  • Teach nutrition

  • Sleep patterns

  • Discuss G&D

  • Family

  • Promote skill development in school, sports and play

  • Safety

Kids want to know: Why do I wake up at night with leg cramps?

Nursing interventions health care setting

Infant: consistent contact/feeding, crib rails @ all times …like to assume adult roles in play

Toddler: allow transitional objects, prepare for “NO!”; remember can’t “conserve” when giving liquid meds, FULL CRIB RAILS

Preschooler: “dramatic play” to explain care-”you listen to Daddy’s heart 1st, apply concept of animism!

School Age: can give more detailed explanations, same age roommate

**Involve parents (rooming in) for all age groups

**Select age appropriate play activities

Nursing Interventions: Health Care Setting

Safety in childhood
Safety in Childhood …like to assume adult roles in play

Prevent aspiration-especially 1st year

Prevent falls-from birth

Prevent Poisonings-especially after walking & during toddlers years

Prevent Burns-especially after walking and thru school age

Prevent injury from firearms especially school-age

Prevent drowning- especially after walking

Implement Car Safety-from birth

Safety 1 st year of life
Safety: 1 …like to assume adult roles in playst year of life

Promoting safety throughout childhood
Promoting Safety Throughout Childhood …like to assume adult roles in play