Restructuring the postwar world
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Restructuring the Postwar World. Chapter 17. Yalta Conference Iron Curtain Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan NATO Warsaw Pact. Brinkmanship Third World Nonaligned nations Nikita Khrushchev Détente SALT talks. Cold War - terms to know. Frenemies.

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Restructuring the Postwar World

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Restructuring the postwar world

Restructuring the Postwar World

Chapter 17

Cold war terms to know

Yalta Conference

Iron Curtain


Truman Doctrine

Marshall Plan


Warsaw Pact


Third World

Nonaligned nations

Nikita Khrushchev


SALT talks

Cold War - terms to know



  • Soviets and US were allied during WWII

  • However, US was wary with the Soviets because of the alliance with Germany in 1939

  • Stalin then blamed the US for not getting involved in Europe until 1944

Yalta conference

Yalta Conference

  • Division of Germany

    • Germany would be occupied by Allies

    • Germany would pay reparations to Soviets

  • United Nations created

    • Peacekeeping organization, based in New York City



  • US and Soviets were no longer allies

    • WWII affected each one differently

    • Differences in politics and economics

Iron curtain

Iron Curtain

  • Buffer zone

    • Soviets wanted a guard from the West

    • Stalin created communist governments to surround the Soviet Union (disregarded agreement from Yalta Conference)

      • Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia

    • Stalin believed communism and capitalism could not exist in the same world

  • Divided east and west

    • Democratic west, communist east

Us resists the soviets

US resists the Soviets

  • Containment

    • Block Soviet influence by making alliances and helping weak countries resist communism

  • Truman Doctrine

    • US should aid any country that rejects communism

      • Highly contested, but passed by Congress

  • Marshall Plan

    • US should aid countries that are suffering because of WWII

      • Provide food, machinery, and other materials to rebuild the countries

    • Supported by Congress after the Soviets took control of Czechoslovakia

Berlin airlift

Berlin Airlift

  • US and Soviets clashed over control of Germany

    • Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak and divided

    • US wanted to let Germany reunite

  • Soviets continued to control West Berlin

    • Cut off all traffic to West Berlin unless the Allies gave up the idea of unifying Germany

    • US and Britain flew in supplies



  • NATO

    • Blockade of Berlin caused Western nations to fear Soviet action

    • Created the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

      • If you attack one member of NATO, all will retaliate

  • Warsaw Pact

    • Soviets saw NATO as a threat, so they created their own alliance

    • Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania

Cold war divides the world

Cold War divides the world

  • 1961 - Germans build a wall to divide East and West Berlin (symbolized the division around the world)

  • India chose to remain neutral

  • China sided with NATO



  • US and Soviets had nuclear weapons

    • Worked at creating even more powerful weaponry (fusion rather than fission)

  • Eisenhower’s secretary of state (Dulles) threatened that if the Soviets ever attacked, that the US would retaliate immediately

  • Both countries were continually on the edge of going to war

    • Strengthened the military, stockpiled weapons

Inspiration from the cold war

Inspiration from the Cold War

  • The Cold War spurred a desire for improved science and technology

    • Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)

    • Sputnik and other satellites

  • CIA began using high-altitude spy planes

Third world

Third World

  • Third world - countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa

    • US, Soviets and Chinese all wanted influence on the governments of these countries

  • Nonaligned nations

    • Did not want to become involved in the Cold War, wanted to be neutral

    • Some ended up taking sides

Conflicts in latin america

Conflicts in Latin America

  • Latin American countries were struggling

    • Rapid industrialization, population growth, growing gape between rich and poor

    • Looked for aid from both US and Soviets

      • US supported leaders who protected US businesses, but were often oppressive

      • Soviets supported revolutionary and nationalistic movements

Conflicts in latin america1

Conflicts in Latin America

  • Cuban Revolution

    • Fidel Castro led a revolution to overthrow Cuba’s dictator, but became a dictator himself

    • Took over US mills and refineries, so US put an embargo on all trade

    • Cuba turned to the Soviets for aid

  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    • Soviets believed that US would not be able to stop Soviet expansion in Latin America

    • Khrushchev built 42 missile sites in Cuba

    • Khrushchev would remove the missiles if the US promised to not invade Cuba

    • Cuba became dependent on Soviet aid

Soviets in eastern europe

Soviets in Eastern Europe

  • Soviets kept a firm grip on its satellite countries

    • They could not grow/develop on their own - had to meet the needs of the Soviets

    • Satellite countries began protesting, and China was becoming a threat

  • Destalinization

    • After Stalin’s death, Khrushchev wanted to get rid of the memory of Stalin

      • Toppled statues, denounced Stalin for killing and imprisoning innocent Soviets

    • Khrushchev wanted a change in how the Soviet Union dealt with capitalist countries

      • “peaceful competition

Protests against the soviets

Protests against the Soviets

  • Satellite countries were not satisfied

  • Hungary

    • People began protesting

    • Imre Nagy formed a new government

      • Promised elections and that he would force Soviet troops to leave

    • Soviet troops arrived, overwhelmed the protestors and executed Nagy

Protests against the soviets1

Protests against the Soviets

  • Khrushchev lost prestige after the Cuban Missile Crisis, replaced by Brezhnev

    • Removed right to free speech and worship

    • Government censored all published material

    • Would not tolerate any form of dissent

  • Alexander Dubcek - Czech leader responded by loosening his censorship laws

    • Prague Spring - new ideas were allowed to bloom

  • Brezhnev had forces from the Warsaw Pact invade Czechoslovakia

    • Claimed it was to keep countries from rejecting communism

Soviets and china split

Soviets and China split

  • China was committed to communism

    • 1950 - Mao and Stalin signed a 30-year treaty of friendship

  • Friendship did not last

    • Chinese refused to follow Soviet leadership, began to spread their form of communism to Africa and Asia

    • Khrushchev then refused to share nuclear secrets, and then ended economic aid

D tente


  • End of Brinkmanship

    • 1970s - US and Soviets were no longer involved in a series of crises that threatened nuclear war

    • Soviets stepped down from a confrontation at sea

    • President Johnson became involved in the Vietnam War

  • US turns to détente

    • US chose to avoid direct confrontation with the Soviets after the country’s reaction to Vietnam

    • President Nixon wanted to reduce tensions between the two countries

      • Wanted to work with China and Russia

Salt talks

SALT talks

  • Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

  • Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I treaty

    • 5 year agreement

    • Limited number of intercontinental ballistics and submarine-launched missiles


    • President Carter was unhappy with Soviet actions (harsh treatment of protestors)

    • Soviets invaded Afghanistan - Congress refused to ratify SALT II

D tente1


  • Collapse of the détente

    • More countries began creating nuclear weapons

  • Reagan took office

    • Very anti-communist

    • Increased defense spending

    • Put military and economic pressure on the Soviets

    • Created Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) to protect from enemy missiles

China korea vietnam

China, Korea, Vietnam

  • Complete the worksheet

Conflicts in the middle east

Conflicts in the Middle East

  • Clash over Western and Islamic values

  • Iran

    • Shah Pahlavi (Iran’s leader) strengthened ties to Western cultures, and weakened the influence of ayatollahs

    • Ayatollah Khomeini encouraged riots and took over the government

      • Strongly anti-US

      • Very militant style of Islamic government, attacked US Embassy

        • Took 60 people hostage for 444 days

Conflicts in the middle east1

Conflicts in the Middle East

  • Iraq

    • Saddam Hussein ran a secular government

    • Iran and Iraq went to war in 1980

      • US supported both sides - didn’t want a change in power

      • Soviets supported Iraq

  • Afghanistan

    • Soviet influence began increasing in the 1950s

      • 1979 - Muslims revolted and Soviets invaded

      • Soviets were stuck in Afghanistan, fighting troops supported by the US

        • US considered the Soviets a threat to oil supplies



  • Describe the relationship between the US and Soviets after WWII

  • Compare/Contrast US and Soviet ways of thinking for politics and economics

  • Was the Iron Curtain necessary?



  • Why were NATO and the Warsaw Pact created?

  • Why would some countries decide to remain neutral?

  • What did we gain from the Cold War?

  • Were we safer during brinkmanship?



  • Why was the Third World important during the Cold War?

  • What effect did the Cuban Missile Crisis have on the Cold War?

  • Why did the Soviet Union want to keep Hungary as a satellite?



  • What is the difference between brinkmanship and détente?

  • What happened at the SALT talks?

  • Could the US have gained Ayatollah Khomeini’s support? Why/Why not?



  • How did the Cold War contribute to Jiang Jieshi’s survival?

  • Compare/Contrast China’s promised to Tibet with the Soviet Union’s promises to eastern Europe

  • What is the importance of the communes?

  • Describe the Cultural Revolution and its effect on society.



  • What was result of the Korean War?

  • Compare/Contrast the Vietnamese Nationalists and Communists with the Chinese Nationalists and Communists.

  • Why did the US get involved in Vietnam?

  • Are we safer today or during the Cold War?

Study guide essay test

Study Guide (Essay Test)

  • Iron Curtain - What was it? Why did it exist? What are the benefits and weaknesses? Was it necessary?

  • Relationship between US and Soviets - What weakened it? How did the relationship change during the Cold War? What event(s) almost came to war? What effect did the Cuban Missile Crisis have on the relationship?

  • What changes did Mao Zedong make in China? What was one of the major changes? How did his actions benefit/weaken the country? What effect did the Cultural Revolution have?

  • What is brinkmanship? What caused it? What effect did it have on society? IYO-was it good or bad?

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