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The Russian Revolution. Readings : Smith, et al., 902-904, 932-934. Peter Builds New Capital. Nicholas I (1825-1855). Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution Wanted to make world safe for autocracy Fought against progress in Russia and Europe. Decembrists. Revolt against czarism

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The russian revolution
The Russian Revolution

Readings: Smith, et al., 902-904, 932-934



Nicholas i 1825 1855
Nicholas I (1825-1855)

  • Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution

  • Wanted to make world safe for autocracy

  • Fought against progress in Russia and Europe


Decembrists
Decembrists

  • Revolt against czarism

  • Put down

  • Revolutions of 1848

  • Most of Europe but Russia has some form of democracy

  • Economy remains backward


Alexander ii 1855 1881
Alexander II (1855-1881)

  • Son of Nicholas I.

  • One of better czars – interested in reform

  • Emancipated the serfs in 1861


Alexander iii 1881 1894
Alexander III (1881-1894)

  • Increased the repressive powers of the police

  • Limited the power of the local assemblies

  • Pograms against anyone who was not Russian


Nicholas ii 1894 1917
Nicholas II (1894-1917)

Wrong man, wrong time

Little interest in government


Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

  • Imperialistic Conflict over Korea and Manchuria

  • Russia trying to ward off rebellion


Bloody sunday january 22 1905
Bloody Sunday-January 22, 1905

  • Began in St Petersburg

  • Disaster of Russo-Japanese War revealed corruption and incompetence of czar

  • Created Duma, limited economic reform


World war i rasputin
World War I/ Rasputin

  • Had control over the Tsar Nicholas II and the Tsarina

  • Was murdered in December 1916

  • World War I was a disaster.


The revolutions of 1917
The Revolutions of 1917

  • February Revolution (March 8, 1917)

  • Czar Nicholas Abdicates




How Do Bolsheviks Get Power?

  • Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)—April 16. 1917

  • Lenin calls for armed insurrection

    —Oct. 16, 1917 (Russian Calendar)

  • October Revolution begins, October 24, 1917 (Russian Calendar)

  • November 6, 1917 (Western European Calendar)

  • Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin


Treaty of brest litovsk march 3 1918
Treaty of Brest Litovsk—March 3, 1918

  • Lost 32% of the land

  • Lost Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania

  • Much of the Ukraine

  • Much of Belarussia


Creation of soviet union
Creation of Soviet Union

  • Civil War, 1918-1921

    • “Reds” vs “Whites”

  • “Reds” (Bolsheviks, Communists) under Lenin win

    • Supported by peasants, national/ethnic groups

  • New Economic Plan

    • Nationalization of banks and heavy industry, limited ownership of small businesses

  • Lenin dies 1923


  • Power struggle after lenin s death and stalin s rule
    Power Struggle after Lenin’s Death and Stalin’s Rule

    • Forced collectivization

    • “The Great Famine”

    • “The Great Terror”

    • Purges

    • Gulag


    Contemporary problems
    Contemporary Problems

    • Cold War with US from 1945-1991

    • Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost allowed

    • Democracy to Emerge

    • Perestroika—socialism not possible in capitalist world

    • Resigns December 25, 1991

    • End of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War


    Boris yeltsin
    Boris Yeltsin

    • Problems:

      • Economy was a mess

      • Workers not paid

      • National Debt

      • IMF and World Bank Money to Cronies

      • Politics a Mess


    Today in russia and the former soviet union
    Today in Russia and the Former Soviet Union

    • A weak Boris Yeltsin names Vladimir Putin, former KGB agent, Premier then President

    • New President Dmitri Medvedev, but Putin still makes many decisions


    Today s russia continued
    Today’s Russia (continued)

    • Ethnic groups want autonomy or Independence

    • Putin has destroyed Chechnya

    • Reports of rapes and pillage

    • Nationalists want powerful Soviet Union

    • Questions still needing answers


    Russian revolution who won who lost
    Russian Revolution: Who Won, Who Lost?

    • Losers

      • Poorest peasants

      • Traditional Russian upper classes

      • Many of those in traditional Russian middle classes

      • Those killed or imprisoned because of oppressive regime

      • Jews, Muslims

      • Other ethnic minorities (maybe)

      • Russian Economy

      • Russian Democracy

    • Winners

      • Communist Party

      • Some Workers

      • Massive Literacy Project—all those who learn to read and write

      • Vastly improved health care—all those who lived longer and healthier

      • Women


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