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The Russian Revolution. Readings : Smith, et al., 902-904, 932-934. Peter Builds New Capital. Nicholas I (1825-1855). Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution Wanted to make world safe for autocracy Fought against progress in Russia and Europe. Decembrists. Revolt against czarism

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the russian revolution
The Russian Revolution

Readings: Smith, et al., 902-904, 932-934

nicholas i 1825 1855
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
  • Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution
  • Wanted to make world safe for autocracy
  • Fought against progress in Russia and Europe
decembrists
Decembrists
  • Revolt against czarism
  • Put down
  • Revolutions of 1848
  • Most of Europe but Russia has some form of democracy
  • Economy remains backward
alexander ii 1855 1881
Alexander II (1855-1881)
  • Son of Nicholas I.
  • One of better czars – interested in reform
  • Emancipated the serfs in 1861
alexander iii 1881 1894
Alexander III (1881-1894)
  • Increased the repressive powers of the police
  • Limited the power of the local assemblies
  • Pograms against anyone who was not Russian
nicholas ii 1894 1917
Nicholas II (1894-1917)

Wrong man, wrong time

Little interest in government

slide12

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)

  • Imperialistic Conflict over Korea and Manchuria
  • Russia trying to ward off rebellion
bloody sunday january 22 1905
Bloody Sunday-January 22, 1905
  • Began in St Petersburg
  • Disaster of Russo-Japanese War revealed corruption and incompetence of czar
  • Created Duma, limited economic reform
world war i rasputin
World War I/ Rasputin
  • Had control over the Tsar Nicholas II and the Tsarina
  • Was murdered in December 1916
  • World War I was a disaster.
the revolutions of 1917
The Revolutions of 1917
  • February Revolution (March 8, 1917)
  • Czar Nicholas Abdicates
slide22

How Do Bolsheviks Get Power?

  • Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)—April 16. 1917
  • Lenin calls for armed insurrection

—Oct. 16, 1917 (Russian Calendar)

  • October Revolution begins, October 24, 1917 (Russian Calendar)
  • November 6, 1917 (Western European Calendar)
  • Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin
treaty of brest litovsk march 3 1918
Treaty of Brest Litovsk—March 3, 1918
  • Lost 32% of the land
  • Lost Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
  • Much of the Ukraine
  • Much of Belarussia
creation of soviet union
Creation of Soviet Union
  • Civil War, 1918-1921
      • “Reds” vs “Whites”
  • “Reds” (Bolsheviks, Communists) under Lenin win
      • Supported by peasants, national/ethnic groups
  • New Economic Plan
      • Nationalization of banks and heavy industry, limited ownership of small businesses
  • Lenin dies 1923
power struggle after lenin s death and stalin s rule
Power Struggle after Lenin’s Death and Stalin’s Rule
  • Forced collectivization
  • “The Great Famine”
  • “The Great Terror”
  • Purges
  • Gulag
contemporary problems
Contemporary Problems
  • Cold War with US from 1945-1991
  • Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost allowed
  • Democracy to Emerge
  • Perestroika—socialism not possible in capitalist world
  • Resigns December 25, 1991
  • End of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War
boris yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
  • Problems:
    • Economy was a mess
    • Workers not paid
    • National Debt
    • IMF and World Bank Money to Cronies
    • Politics a Mess
today in russia and the former soviet union
Today in Russia and the Former Soviet Union
  • A weak Boris Yeltsin names Vladimir Putin, former KGB agent, Premier then President
  • New President Dmitri Medvedev, but Putin still makes many decisions
today s russia continued
Today’s Russia (continued)
  • Ethnic groups want autonomy or Independence
  • Putin has destroyed Chechnya
  • Reports of rapes and pillage
  • Nationalists want powerful Soviet Union
  • Questions still needing answers
russian revolution who won who lost
Russian Revolution: Who Won, Who Lost?
  • Losers
    • Poorest peasants
    • Traditional Russian upper classes
    • Many of those in traditional Russian middle classes
    • Those killed or imprisoned because of oppressive regime
    • Jews, Muslims
    • Other ethnic minorities (maybe)
    • Russian Economy
    • Russian Democracy
  • Winners
    • Communist Party
    • Some Workers
    • Massive Literacy Project—all those who learn to read and write
    • Vastly improved health care—all those who lived longer and healthier
    • Women
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