Hunter gatherers and agriculturists
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Hunter/Gatherers and Agriculturists. The Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Revolution. Prehistory. What would people in the future think of American culture based on what we leave behind?. A. Life Before Agriculture. Paleolithic Era paleo meaning “old” lithos meaning “stone”

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Hunter gatherers and agriculturists

Hunter/Gatherers and Agriculturists

The Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Revolution


Prehistory

Prehistory

  • What would people in the future think of American culture based on what we leave behind?


A life before agriculture

A. Life Before Agriculture

Paleolithic Era

paleo meaning “old”

lithos meaning “stone”

2.5 million BCE – 10,000 BCE

Greatest accomplishment of Paleolithic people was migration

Evolution of Modern Humans

How would migration affect the Paleolithic way of life?


B paleolithic way of life

B. Paleolithic Way of Life

  • Adaptation – Ice Age

  • Use of fire

  • Art

  • Life after Death – buried their dead with great care

  • Roles of Men and Women


C causes of the neolithic revolution

C. Causes of the Neolithic Revolution

As the ice age ended, population began to grow

Retreat of large game animals forced hunters to turn to smaller game animals

Overall yield declined

People needed more reliable ways to get food

By 9000 B.C.E. people became more dependant on regular harvests of wild grains, berries, and nuts

Led to deliberate planting

Evidence suggests that hunter/gatherer societies resisted

Eventually agricultural societies won out – most important

H/G societies killed off by diseases


Hunter gatherers and agriculturists

Livin’ the Paleolithic Life

He rubs two sticks, makes a fire,Now his meat and food is so easy to chew. This African man was mostly grunting,

Couldn’t think in our terms, he didn’t have words.So he makes, a word for fire, a word for water,A word for his son and his daughter.He does another thing that no animal tries,He paints paintings on the cave wall; why? I don't know but he’s an African, he’s an Ethiopian,And guess what kid, so are you…Because he made babies, and they made babies,And they made babies, And they made a baby and that baby is you!

Oh, we ain’t got no homes,So all we gonna do is roam.We’re not Romans, but we’re roaming,We’re nomadic, so you know we keep it going.

OK, I don’t even need a hand at all,I will bury the dead like a Neanderthal. I’m Cool Herc meets Kirk, your flow captain,I throw spears like a Cro-Magnon.

Man, we didn’t always look like this,We didn’t have fire, couldn’t cook like this.We didn’t sleep with a pillow,Lived in trees originally, so if you cried you would weep in a willow.But one monkey comes down; it’s cool,When he gets up on his hind legs, he can use tools.Might kill a bird or two, but that’s not happening much,Instead, he’s picking blueberries and he’s gathering nuts.But what’s this, he’s making a stone knife,Now he’s hunting antelope his whole life.But it’s a cold night; with no light it’s dark as cocoa,No home – that could drive a sane man loco.Picture this like Kodak: He roams, he’s a nomad, Following herds of pachyderms wherever they go now.


Hunter gatherers and agriculturists

Livin’ the Paleolithic Life

That’s the early man, he was going insane, Tired of chasing animals across the plains.His wife’s picking berries and fruit from the trees,She’s like, "We could grow food if we plant these seeds." Now she’s like, "This is sweet, my man,We eating bread from the wheat we plant. Those animals you hunt, let’s domesticate them, Put a fence around them, now we’re baking bacon."We ira-irrigate, control water flows, Plow the land, plant the crops, and watch them grow.Now my brother doesn’t even have to farm no more, The Bronze Age – he’s making bronze arms and swords. Division of labor, that’s the plan,Now my aunt can go and open that frozen yogurt stand.You better know, we trade it like Joe’s, n’ settle down,Like Jericho, kid, we built the cities and towns. You better recognize. Oh, we ain’t got no homes,So all we gonna do is roam.We’re not Romans, but we’re roaming,We’re nomadic, so you know we keep it going.


As a hunting gathering society you have slowly made the shift to agriculture

As a hunting-gathering society, you have slowly made the shift to agriculture…..

  • So, now you have some questions to consider regarding your society.

    • What benefits come from this lifestyle? What disadvantages?

    • What if your population grows faster than your food supply? What do you do?

    • What if another society wants what you have? What do you do?

    • How do you keep your people satisfied and cooperating?


D life after agriculture

D. Life After Agriculture

Food Supply

planted, tended and stored crops

Improvement of key grains through selection of seeds from the best plants

Animals are domesticated

by 9000 B.C.E. goats, sheep, and cattle

hunting supplemented food supply

Shelter

use of mud bricks

eventually stones are quarried

Settled villages located near fields – farming communities


C life after agriculture

C. Life After Agriculture

3.  Social Structure

Complex social structures involved many clans living in close proximity

Gender separation:

Men farmed, herded, and hunted

women did jobs near the home: child-rearing, food preparation, etc.

Religion is believed to have been developed to explain the forces of nature

And governments developed to organize activities.

4.  Specialization

People begin to specialize in various tasks: (tool maker), stone cutter, potter, and basket weaving

first potter’s wheel - 6000 B.C.E.

first bronze tools - 4000 B.C.E.

Regional resources are gathered and traded


C life after agriculture1

C. Life After Agriculture

5.  Art and Innovation

Carving and statuary, complex tools such as advances in weapons, plows pulled by animals, building techniques, cloth making and weaving

Architecture and building for religious or common use

6.  Language

Development of pictographic languages (Egyptian Hieroglyphic) or written language.

Developed to keep records concerning food storage & trade.


D characteristics of civilization

D. Characteristics of Civilization

Organized Governments

Planned, organized, and directed large city projects – irrigation, flood control

Division of Labor

Provided goods and services

Enabled people to develop specialized skills

Encouraged trade and the development of new technology

Class Structure

Defined a person’s place in society

reflected distribution of wealth


D characteristics of civilization1

D. Characteristics of Civilization

3.  Organized religion

Formalized religious beliefs, rituals & structure

Explained life, death, nature, and spirits

4.  Cities

Urban centers & surrounding farmland

Marked the beginning of civilizations

5.  System of Writing

Ability to send messages, keep records

Transmit knowledge

6.  Art and Architecture


Can you answer these focus questions

Can you answer these focus questions?

  • Discuss the advances that people made during the Old Stone Age.

  • Examine the benefits and the drawbacks of the agricultural revolution explaining each fully.

  • How and when did agriculture spread to different areas?

  • Explain how the first cities emerged.

  • Explain the transition between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age.


D characteristics of civilization2

D. Characteristics of Civilization

Organized Governments

Made and enforced laws to keep order

Exercised authority over an organized state

Planned, organized, and directed large city projects – irrigation, flood control

Standardized the money system

Collected taxes

Division of Labor

Provided goods and services

Enabled people to develop specialized skills

Encouraged trade and the development of new technology

Class Structure

Defined a person’s place in society

reflected distribution of wealth


D characteristics of civilization3

D. Characteristics of Civilization

3.  Organized religion

Formalized religious beliefs

Explained life, death, nature, and spirits

Selected a clergy

Established rituals and symbols, shrines and sacred places

4.  Cities

Growing population led to urban centers

Included surrounding farmlands

Marked the beginning of civilizations

5.  System of Writing

Ability to send messages, keep records

Transmit knowledge with far greater accuracy, detail, and quantity

6.  Art and Architecture


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