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Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazards. Donald Teig HQ AFCESA/CEOA. US Airways Flight 1549. AP photo. 15 January 2009 in the Hudson River. Objective. Introduce you to basic BASH information so you have an understanding of potential wildlife hazards at your base. Overview. Awareness

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bird wildlife aircraft strike hazards

Bird/Wildlife Aircraft Strike Hazards

Donald Teig

HQ AFCESA/CEOA

slide2

US Airways Flight 1549

AP photo

15 January 2009 in the Hudson River

objective
Objective

Introduce you to basic BASH information so you have an understanding of potential wildlife hazards at your base.

overview
Overview
  • Awareness
  • Identifying the Problem
  • Dealing With the Problem
  • Engineer’s Role
  • Safety’s Role
72 827 wildlife strikes 740 786 928 damage 20 year average 86 06 35 0m 3338 strikes
72,827 Wildlife Strikes $740,786,928 Damage20 Year Average (86-06) - $35.0M, 3338 Strikes

Statistics (1985 – 2006)

Count

Cost in millions

statistics 1985 2006
Statistics (1985 – 2006)

Count

  • AIRFIELD
  • 35,453 strikes (48%)
  • $248,347,481 (32%)
  • LOW-LEVEL / RANGE
  • 10,364 strikes(14%)
  • $490,693,694 (62%)

Cost

  • OTHER
  • 28,273 strikes (38%)
  • $46,171,694 (6%)
statistics 1985 20061
Statistics (1985 – 2006)

Strikes Per Month

Spring

Migration

Fall

Migration

strikes by altitude
Strikes By Altitude

≤ 500’ AGL, 64%

≤ 1000’ AGL, 79%

≤ 2000’ AGL, 92%

Strikes

Altitude – Feet AGL

slide12

BASH Examples

Size Doesn’t Always Matter

F-16 Target Pod

White-Throated Swift

slide13

BASH Examples

Damage to fan

blades and canopy

slide14

BASH Examples

Props Don’t Necessarily Stop Engine Ingestions

C-130

American Robin

$495K Damage

slide15

BASH Examples

Radome

Damage

slide16

BASH Examples

Rotary Winged Aircraft Aren’t Immune

US Marine Corps Cobra

Golden Eagle

slide17

BASH Examples

BASH Isn’t Just For The Birds

White-tailed Deer

identifying the problem
Identifying the Problem
  • Strike Reporting
  • Wildlife Identifications
  • Observations / Surveys
  • Nighttime Hazards
wildlife identifications
Wildlife Identifications

Feather Identification

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

National Museum of Natural History

  • OVER HALF OF ALL BIRD STRIKES ARE IDENTIFIED
  • EXPERTS ARE AT THE SMITHSONIAN
  • ACCESS TO OVER 650,000 SPECIMENS

Red-tailed Hawks

observations surveys

AOC

FULL EXTENT

Areas of Concern

Observations / Surveys

Plot Potential Trouble Areas (on & off base) directly on a Geographic Information System (GIS) Map

wildlife hazards to night flying
Wildlife Hazards To Night Flying

Nighttime Hazards

  • Non-migration
    • Insectivores
    • Owls
  • Migration
    • Passerines (Songbirds)
    • Waterfowl
    • Can be flying at fairly high altitudes
  • Mammals
    • Bats, deer, and coyote
dealing with the problem
Dealing with the Problem
  • Exclude / Mitigate
  • Harass
  • Depredate
  • Avoid
exclude mitigate
Exclude / Mitigate

Ecosystem

Management

  • GRASS HEIGHT (7-14 inches)
  • NO BARE AREAS
  • ELIMINATE BROAD-LEAF PLANTS
  • AVOID WEED SEED HEADS
exclude mitigate1
Exclude / Mitigate

Cattle Egret

(Bubulcus ibis)

MOW DURING LOW FLYING

exclude mitigate2
Exclude / Mitigate

Maintain Good Airfield Drainage

ELIMINATE STANDING WATER

exclude mitigate3
Exclude / Mitigate
  • DO NOT FEED THE WATERFOWL
  • FENCE OR GRID SMALL PONDS
exclude mitigate4
Exclude / Mitigate

Fencing Best Deterrent to Deer

exclude mitigate5
Exclude / Mitigate

Don’t Give Them a Reason to be There

REMOVE PERCHES

exclude mitigate6
Exclude / Mitigate

Crops Around Your Airfield

MANAGE OUTLEASING WISELY - No Grain Crops

harass
Harass

Harassment

Tools

slide31

Harass

Be aware of other activities around the airfield when harassment activities are taking place

depredate
Depredate

Depredation

  • Use only after other methods have been employed
  • Permits, Permits, Permits
  • US Fish & Wildlife Service
  • State Game Department

When all else fails…..

avoid
Avoid

Bird Avoidance Model (BAM)

Avian Hazard Advisory System

(AHAS)

Small Mobile Radar (SMR)

Dealing

bird avoidance model
Bird Avoidance Model

BAM

  • Data
  • Geographic Information System-based
  • 30+ Years of Top 60 Species
  • Web Based

Dealing

bash problem
BASH Problem
  • The Safety Office is responsible
  • Cross-functional participation
    • Safety (SE)
    • Civil Engineering (CE)
    • Judge Advocate General (JAG)
    • Public Affairs (PA)
    • Director of Operations (DO)
    • Logistics (LG)
safety responsibilities
Safety Responsibilities

Installation Safety Office:

  • Establish a BASH Plan
  • Establish Bird Hazard Working Group, (BHWG)
  • Establish procedures for wildlife control
  • Develop a Bird Hazard Warning System
  • Designate Phase I / II periods of bird activity
slide38

Safety Responsibilities

BASH Plan

  • “Flight safety office will establish the BASH plan, defining the nature and extent of wildlife hazards and implementation of the plan”
  • Living document
  • Use Bird Hazard Working Group as forum for revising plan
  • Responsibilities of each organization spelled out clearly
bird hazard working group

Safety Responsibilities

Bird Hazard Working Group
  • Consists of organizations involved in airfield bird control, habitat management, operations, and safety
  • Meet at least semi-annually
  • Maintain minutes
  • Vice wing commander chairs meetings
  • Forum to discuss budgeting and all airfield projects and how they impact BASH
wildlife control

Safety Responsibilities

Wildlife Control
  • Internal Manpower
    • Which agency is responsible for harassment and/or depredation
    • Equipment
  • Contract Manpower
    • US Department of Agriculture/Wildlife Services
    • – depredation, harassment, surveys …..

Airports are not

Wildlife Refuges

slide41

Sunrise/Sunset

Flying one hour before and after dawn or dusk should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. The highest levels of bird activity normally occur during these hours as birds leave and return to their roost. Avoiding flight operations during these periods can significantly reduce the chance of a birdstrike.

slide42

Other Solutions

Vulture roost less than 2 nautical miles from the runway

slide43

Other Solutions

A Taxidermy Mount

Of a Dead Vulture

slide44

DoD BASH POC’s

slide45

FAA Guidance

  • Advisory Circular 150/5200-33
    • FAA ADVISORY CIRCULAR:  HAZARDOUS WILDLIFE ATTRACTANTS ON OR NEAR AIRPORTS
  • Federal Aviation Regulation Part 139, Sec. 139.337
    • CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS: LAND AIRPORTS SERVING CERTAIN AIR CARRIERS
  • Certification Alert 97-02
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FAA AND USDA/WILDLIFE SERVICES
  • Certification Alert 97-05
    • GRASS ATTRACTIVE TO HAZARDOUS WILDLIFE
  • Certification Alert 97-09
    • WILDLIFE HAZARD MANAGEMENT PLAN OUTLINE
slide46

USAF Guidance

  • AFI 91-202 (Chapter 7.11) The US Air Force Mishap Prevention Program 1 Aug 98
  • AFI 91-204 (Chapters 1.10.5.3 and 3.1) Safety Investigations and Reports (Bird Strike Reporting) 24 Sep 08
  • AFMAN 91-223 (Chapters 1.3, 1.3.1.9 and 5.4.2) Aviation Safety Investigations and Reports 6 Jul 04
  • AFPAM 91-212 Bird Aircraft Strike Hazard (BASH) Management Techniques 1 Feb 04
  • AFI 32-7064 Integrated Natural Resources Management   17 Sep 04
  • AFI 32-7061 Environmental Impact Analysis Process 2 Mar 03
  • AFI 13-213 Airfield Management 8 Dec 05
  • AFI 21-201 Management and Maintenance of Non-Nuclear Munitions 10 Feb 05 
slide47

Navy Guidance

  • OPNAVINST 5909.1B CH-3: Environmental and Natural Resources Program Manual
  • NAVFAC P-73 Procedural Manual, Volume II
  • OPNAVINST 3750.6R Chg 1: Naval Aviation Safety
  • Program
slide48

References

  • USAF BASH Team Web Site

www.afsafety.af.mil/AFSC/Bash/home.html

  • USAF BAM / AHAS Web Site

www.usahas.com

  • Federal Aviation Administration BASH Web Site

www.wildlife-mitigation.tc.faa.gov/public_html/index.html

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