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GREECE. UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME LECTURE 1. OBJECTIVES. CORE OBJECTIVE : Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece Objective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and government that developed in the city-states.

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GREECE

UNIT 2 – GREECE AND ROME

LECTURE 1


OBJECTIVES

  • CORE OBJECTIVE: Explain how geography, culture, and government impacted Classical Greece

    • Objective 3.1: Identify the different political systems and government that developed in the city-states.

    • Objective 3.2: Summarize the causes and results of the Persian & Peloponnesian Wars.

    • Objective 3.3: Describe Greek culture through art, religion, literature, architecture, drama, and philosophy.

    • Objective 3.4: Summarize the impact of Alexander’s conquests and the resulting Hellenistic Culture.

  • THEME:The Greek culture will have a significant impact and influence on many other world cultures.


Classical Greece

2000 B.C.–300 B.C.

Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea

SECTION 1

Warring City-States

SECTION 2

Democracy and Greece’s Golden Age

SECTION 3

Alexander’s Empire

SECTION 4

The Spread of the Hellenistic Culture

SECTION 5


CULTURES OF THE MOUNTAINS AND THE SEA

CHAPTER 5 SECTION 1

The roots of Greek culture are based on interaction of the Mycenaean, Minoan, and Dorian cultures.


Greece


Greece is known for its classical civilization (500 to 300 BC).

  • Classical Greek culture, particularly that of Athens, is famed for its beautiful arts, architecture, philosophy, theater, Olympic games, and for creating the first democracy.

  • Classical Greece is considered the principal source of Western Civilization.


Civilization eventually came to Europe.

  • The first civilizations to develop in Europe were extensions of the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  • Europe’s earliest major culture was the Minoan civilization of Crete, the largest of the Greek islands.

  • The Minoan culture was strongly influenced by Egypt.


GEOGRAPHY SHAPES LIFE

  • Ancient Greece

    • Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people live

    • Includes mainland and about 2,000 islands

  • The Sea

    • The sea shapes Greek civilization

    • Proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade

  • The Land

    • Mountains slow travel, divide land into regions

    • Lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies

  • The Climate

    • Moderate climate promotes outdoor life

    • Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside


Greece is a mountainous and rocky peninsula.

  • Greece has little good farmland, but its long irregular coastline provided fine harbors.

  • Many Greeks turned to the sea to make a living by fishing and trading.

  • Greeks established colonies and dominated trade in the Mediterranean and Black Seas.

WHAT DID ISOLATION CREATE??????


Isolation molded Greek culture.

  • Greek communities isolated by mountains developed into independent city-states that often fought with one another.

  • The leading city-states were Sparta with its strong military government and Athens, the present-day capital of Greece.


Mycenaean Civilization Develops

  • Origins

    • Mycenaeans— (the first Greeks) Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000 B.C.

    • Took their name from their leading city, Mycenae

    • Mycenaean warrior-kings dominate Greece from 1600–1100 B.C.

  • Contact with Minoans

    • After 1500 B.C., Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture

  • The Trojan War

    • Trojan War — fought by Mycenaeans against city of Troy in 1200s B.C.

    • Once thought to be fictional, archaeological evidence has been found

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DORIAN DECLINE

  • Dorians Replace Mycenaeans

    • Mycenaean civilization collapses around 1200 B.C.

    • Dorians— group who replaced the Mycenaeans in Greece

      • 2nd Greek Civilization

      • possibly relatives of Bronze Age Greeks—move into Greece

    • Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records

  • Epics of Homer

    • Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer—a blind storyteller

    • Epic—a narrative poem about heroic deeds

    • Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek heroic ideal


The Iliad describes the Trojan War.

  • In the Trojan War most of Greece united to attack the city-state of Troy, located in Asia Minor.

  • The war lasted for years because Troy was surrounded by strong stone walls.

  • At last the Greeks used a large, hollow, wooden horse with soldiers hidden inside to defeat the defenders of the city of Troy.


The Odyssey tells of the travels of the Greek hero Odysseus.

  • He and his men had to overcome many obstacles during their 10-year voyage home from the war in Troy.

  • Eventually Odysseus reaches his home in Ithaca and regains his lost home, his son, his wife, and his kingdom.


In both poems, reason and wisdom were better than strength.

  • The heroes of Greek myths such as the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models of excellence for the ancient Greeks.

  • Homer’s poems were later the inspiration for a great outpouring of literature during the Greek classical age.


GREEK MYTHS

  • Greeks develop myths—traditional stories about gods

    • The Greeks had a polytheistic religion; their gods lived on Mount Olympus.

    • Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths

    • Greeks attribute human qualities—love, hate, jealousy—to their gods

  • Popular Greek Gods

    • Zeus, ruler of Gods, lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera

    • Zeus’s daughter Athena is goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities

    • Ares: God of War

  • Greek Monsters

    • Centaurs: half-horse; half-human; lawless aggressive creatures

    • Cerberus: hounds of Hades

    • Cyclops: giant one-eyed semi gods


GREEK GODS

  • http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece/videos#greek-gods


WARRING CITY-STATES

CHAPTER 5 SECTION 2

The growth of city-states in Greece leads to the development of many different political systems


THE CITY-STATE

  • By 750 B.C. the Greek city-state, or polis, is the formal government

    • A polis is a city and its surrounding villages

    • 50 to 500 square miles

    • Population of a city-state is often less than 10,000

  • Citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis—a fortified hilltop

    • http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-greece/videos#deconstructing-history-the-acropolis


The Greeks established a new kind of society with the polis.

  • The polis was an association of free male citizens who served as the soldiers who defended their city-state from attack, and they managed the government.

  • The polis chose leaders to govern the city-state for a limited period of time, often a year.


EARLY GREEK POLITICS

  • Greek Political Structures

    • City-states have different forms of government

    • Many were ruled by a monarchy, aristocracy, or oligarchy

  • Tyrants Seize Power

    • Rulers and common people clash in many city-states

    • Tyrants—nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people

    • They seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people


ATHENS BUILDS A DEMOCRACY

  • Building Democracy

    • About 621 B.C., democracy — rule by the people — develops in Athens

    • This slowly develops over time from the influence of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes

    • Only native-born, property-owning males are citizens

  • Athenian Education

    • Schooling only for sons of wealthy families

    • Girls learn from mothers and other female members of household


SPARTA BUILDS A MILITARY STATE

  • Isolated from much of Greece, Around 725 B.C., Sparta conquers Messenia

    • Messeniansbecome helots—peasants forced to farm the land

    • Harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger state

  • SPARTAN LIFE

    • Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom

    • Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece

    • Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60

    • Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives

    • Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else


THE PERSIAN WARS

  • A New Kind of Army Emerges

    • Cheaper iron replaces bronze, making arms and armor cheaper

    • Leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes

    • Phalanx—feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields

  • Battle at Marathon

    • Persian Wars — between Greece and Persian Empire

    • Persian army, led by Darius the great attacks Athens

      • defeated atMarathon in 490 B.C.

  • PheidippidesBrings News

    • Runner Pheidippides races to Athens to announce Greek victory

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The Persians tried again to invade Greece in 480 BC.

  • Thermopylae and Salamis

    • In 480 B.C., Persians launch new invasion of Greece

    • Greeks are divided; many stay neutral or side with Persians

    • Greek forces hold Thermopylae (300) for three days before retreating


SALAMIS: Xerxes would not get the victory he planned for.

  • The people of Athens fled to the nearby island of Salamis after the Persians conquered and burned Athens.

    • The Persian king, Xerxes, had his throne placed on a hill where he could watch his fleet of a thousand large warships destroy the much smaller Greek fleet.

  • Instead, Xerxes looked on in horror as the Greeks lured his navy into a narrow strait where the smaller Greek ships outmaneuvered and rammed the larger Persian ships, sinking most of the Persian fleet.

    • After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes went home to Persia, and the Persian Wars soon ended.


CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN WARS

  • Consequences of the Persian Wars

    • New self-confidence in Greece due to victory

    • Athens emerges as leader of DelianLeague

      • City-States combine to keep fighting the Persians

    • Athens controls the league by using force against opponents

    • League members essentially become provinces of Athenian empire

      • Stage is set for a dazzling burst of creativity in Athens

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