Chemistry

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Chemistry

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14. COMPOSTING Materials: One per student: Laboratory Notebooks Gloves Per group: Composting Columns Composting Materials- Student supplied Supplied Materials- Teacher supplied

15. COMPOSTING 1. Design a chart for your individual materials. List all materials Use descriptive words to highlight the similarities and differences 2. Consult with the rest of your group and optimize your group chart design to include: A way to classify the materials from all group members Evaluate the projected performance of the group materials. 3. Choose a group spokesperson to contribute to the Class Chart. 4. As a Class, design a Class chart that classifies and evaluates the performance of all materials.

16. COMPOSTING What is composting? What patterns did you find in the materials that you have been classifying? (use qualitative descriptions) What patterns did you find in the projected performance of the materials? What generalizations can you make about the materials that we are using in composting? (answers in italics) What is composting? -Composting is a dynamic decomposition process. What patterns did you find in the materials that you have been classifying? (use qualitative descriptions) What patterns did you find in the projected performance of the materials? Materials that will remain the same during composting Materials that will “change” during composting What generalizations can you make about the materials that we are using in composting? -Materials change during the composting process. Many materials decompose but some synthetic materials remain unchanged for many years. (answers in italics) What is composting? -Composting is a dynamic decomposition process. What patterns did you find in the materials that you have been classifying? (use qualitative descriptions) What patterns did you find in the projected performance of the materials? Materials that will remain the same during composting Materials that will “change” during composting What generalizations can you make about the materials that we are using in composting? -Materials change during the composting process. Many materials decompose but some synthetic materials remain unchanged for many years.

17. COMPOSTING Compost materials: Per group: Compost Materials Compost Column Triple Beam Balance Rulers – metric and English Graduated cylinder 250 mL Beaker

18. COMPOSTING Procedure: Design a group chart that will display the dimensions (metric and English units), mass and volume of your compost material. Using the rulers estimate the dimensions of each piece of compost. Using the triple beam balance, take a mass of each object or if necessary, group of objects. We now need the volume of each object. Using the equipment available, find the approximate volume of each object. Compare the mass and volume of your composting materials to the rest of the class.

19. COMPOSTING What was the mass of each group’s compost material? What was the approximate volume of each groups materials? What is the average mass of the Class Compost materials? What is the average volume?

20. As the compost material ages in the column, we expect to see changes in the materials. Will we see changes in the mass and volume? Why? Sometimes a better way to view changes in groups of objects is to look at averages. Over the next few weeks we will continue to observe the Compost Columns and look for changes in individual columns and in all of the columns. What changes might we expect to see? When material changes in the column what is taking place? (Refer to phase change exploration) Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. How is energy being “Changed”? How can we observe these changes? As the compost material ages in the column, we expect to see changes in the materials. Will we see changes in the mass and volume? Why? -Materials decompose. The decomposition process breaks many materials into smaller parts that occupy less space. Gases may be formed that cause the mass of the solid material to decrease. Sometimes a better way to view changes in groups of objects is to look at averages. Over the next few weeks we will continue to observe the Compost Columns and look for changes in individual columns and in all of the columns. What changes might we expect to see? When material changes in the column what is taking place? (Refer to phase change exploration) -Materials decomposing. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. How is energy being “Changed”? -Energy is transformed from one kind of energy to another. How can we observe these changes? -Smell, phase changes, color changes, etc.As the compost material ages in the column, we expect to see changes in the materials. Will we see changes in the mass and volume? Why? -Materials decompose. The decomposition process breaks many materials into smaller parts that occupy less space. Gases may be formed that cause the mass of the solid material to decrease. Sometimes a better way to view changes in groups of objects is to look at averages. Over the next few weeks we will continue to observe the Compost Columns and look for changes in individual columns and in all of the columns. What changes might we expect to see? When material changes in the column what is taking place? (Refer to phase change exploration) -Materials decomposing. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. How is energy being “Changed”? -Energy is transformed from one kind of energy to another. How can we observe these changes? -Smell, phase changes, color changes, etc.

21. Column Calibration Materials: Compost Materials Compost Column Triple Beam Balance Rulers – metric and English Graduated cylinder 250 mL Beaker small square of panty hose rubber band hot water

22. Column Calibration 1. Take two clear plastic 2-liter or 3-liter bottles (of the same type) and name them A and B. Remove the labels from the bottles as best as you can. 2. Cut off the top of A below the area where it stops curving. Cut off the bottom of B before it starts curving toward the bottom. 3. Tie off the spout of bottle B with pantyhose and a rubber band. The compost will drain through this cloth. 4. Invert bottle B into bottle A to where the spout of B is facing the bottom of bottle A. The compost materials will go in bottle B and the drainage/compost tea will fall into the bottom of bottle A. 5. Insert the cut-off top of bottle A into the area above the compost. Water will be poured through here to aide in decomposition. 6. The compost columns need to be in a well-ventilated, naturally-lit, warm area in order for decomposition to occur.

23. Column Evaluation 1. Using the balance, measure the mass of the composting column before it is created. Record the measurement. 2. Using the balance, measure the mass of the column after the composting material has been added. Record the measurement. 3. Record the total volume of composting material on the column and record the reading. 4. There are a number of ways that the transformation that occur in the composting column can be investigated. What manifestations of change could be observed and recorded? What are could cause these observations? There are a number of ways that the transformation that occur in the composting column can be investigated. What manifestations of change could be observed and recorded? What are could cause these observations? -Rotting organic material, gas formation There are a number of ways that the transformation that occur in the composting column can be investigated. What manifestations of change could be observed and recorded? What are could cause these observations? -Rotting organic material, gas formation

24. Composting Evaluation Measure the mass of the assigned object and record your answer on the evaluation form. Measure the volume of the unknown liquid using the graduated cylinder and record your answer on the evaluation form. Discuss the criteria that were used to classify and evaluate the composting material before creation of the column. What do you think will happen to the mass and the volume of the composting material over time?

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