2.3 Carbon Based Molecules. KEY CONCEPT Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life. Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties. Carbon forms covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including other carbon atoms. Carbon-based molecules have three general types of structures .
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Many carbon-based molecules are made of many small subunits bonded together.
Polymers are disassembled (broken up) into monomers by hydrolysis, a process that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction.
Disaccharide – two monosaccharide bonded together
Polysaccharide = more than two monosaccharide bonded together by glycosidic bonds
A complex carbohydrate is a polysaccharide with 12 or more monosaccharide units.
Starch is a polymer of glucose monomers that often has a branched structure.
Cellulose is a polymer of glucose monomers that has a straight, rigid structure
At room temperature, the molecules of an unsaturated fat cannot pack together closely enough to solidify because of the kinks in their fatty acid tails.
At room temperature, the molecules of a saturated fat are packed closely together, forming a solid.
A phosphate group