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Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports www.pbis.org. The Challenge.

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increasing social and academic success positive behavior support meets response to intervention

Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

www.pbis.org

the challenge
The Challenge

Students with the most challenging academic and social problems need pro-active comprehensive and consistent systems of support

School-wide discipline systems are typically unclear and inconsistently implemented – absence of a “social behavior curriculum”

Educators often lack specialized skills to address severe problem behavior and learning challenges

Pressure on schools to incorporate national and state initiatives such as Values Education, Anti-Bullying,Safe Schools andachieving “adequate yearly progress.” Many often have clearly defined outcomes without structures to reach or a framework for deciding what should be implemented when, for whom, and to what degree

Common school response to problem behavior = “punishment” of misbehavior and assumptions about appropriate behavior and/or seek out alternative placements

Common school response to academic challenges = send to specialists to “be fixed”

2 minutes

2 Minutes

With your neighbor, identify core curriculum across each academic subject

2 minutes1

2 Minutes

With your neighbor, identify school-wide rules and strategies for teaching social behavior

the point
The point?
  • We can’t “make” students learn or behave
  • We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave
  • Environments that increase the likelihood of social and academic success are guided by a core curriculum, adapted to reflect student need, and implemented with consistency and fidelity
context

Context

The School Environment Must Support Appropriate Social & Academic Behavior

School-Wide Positive

Behavior Support

Response to Intervention

starting points
Starting Points
  • Teams
  • Universal curriculum developed / identified
  • Data-based decision making
  • Problem solving logic
  • Access to Technical Assistance
  • Working toward district/regional support
typical responses to students
Typical responses to students
  • Increase monitoring for future problem behavior
  • Re-review rules & sanctions
  • Extend continuum of aversive consequences
  • Improve consistency of use of punishments
  • Establish “bottom line”
  • Zero tolerance policies
  • Security guards, student uniforms, metal detectors, video cameras
  • Suspension/expulsion
  • Exclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs)
the danger
The Danger….

“Punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)

the good news
The Good News…

Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994):

  • Social Skills Training
  • Academic Restructuring
  • Behavioral Interventions
contributing factors
Contributing Factors
  • Home
    • Poverty- Language
    • Parent/Child interactions
  • Community
  • School
  • Disability
toward a solution
Toward a Solution

The answer is not the invention of new solutions, but the enhancement of the school’s organizational capacity to:

  • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their use of research-validated practices
  • Provide a Seamless continuum of behavioral and academic support for all students
  • Be part of a district wide system of behavior support
  • Increased focus, teacher training, community training, and funding for early intervention
school wide positive behavior support1
School-wide Positive Behavior Support

PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior

OSEP Center on PBIS

pbs is not
PBS is not...
  • Not specific practice or curriculum…it’s a general approach to preventing problem behavior
  • Not limited to any particular group of students…it’s for all students
  • Not new…its based on long history of behavioral practices & effective instructional design & strategies
designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

slide17

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior

school wide positive behavioral support
School-wide Positive Behavioral Support
  • Incorporate best practice in professional development and system change (teams)
  • Emphasizes the use of assessment information to guide intervention and management decisions
  • Focus on the use of a continuum of behavioral supports
  • Focus on increasing the contextual fit between problem context and what we know works
  • Focus on establishing school environments that support long term success of effective practices {3-5 years}
school wide positive behavioral support1
School-wide Positive Behavioral Support
  • Expectations for student behavior are defined by a building based team with all staff input
  • Effective behavioral support is implemented consistently by staff and administration
  • Appropriate student behavior is taught
  • Positive behaviors are publicly acknowledged
  • Problem behaviors have clear consequences
  • Student behavior is monitored and staff receive regular feedback
  • Effective Behavioral Support strategies are implemented at the school-wide, specific setting, classroom, and individualstudent level
  • Effective Behavioral Support strategies are designed to meet the needs of all students
themes
Themes
  • Focus on positive proactive programming
  • Emphasis on clearly defined working structures
  • Teacher/school takes ownership of student learning & behavioral challenges
  • Problem behavior = learning error
schools with effective discipline
Schools with Effective Discipline
  • Effective Leadership
    • Work smarter not harder
    • Active involvement
    • Clarity in direction
  • Move Beyond Punishment
    • Teach, Monitor, Reward appropriate behaviors before relying on punishment
first steps
First Steps
  • Form a team
  • Establish need, priorities, and commitment
  • Draft a mission statement
  • Develop working structures
  • Develop maintenance structures
  • “Work smarter not harder”
universal strategies school wide
Universal Strategies: School-Wide

Essential Features

  • Statement of purpose
  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)
  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors
  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors
  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors
  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making
preparing for implementation
Preparing for Implementation
  • Establish a regular meeting schedule for the behavior committee
  • Establish a standard system for communicating information within the committee and among staff
  • Analyze needs assessment data and other data to create short and long term goals (EBS survey)
  • Develop regular opportunities for training on key PBS strategies
  • Develop strategies to share information with parents & community
statement of purpose
Statement of Purpose
  • State positively
  • Focus on everyone and all settings in school building
  • Focus on academic and behavioral outcomes

"To promote and maintain a safe and orderly learning environment for students and staff"

clearly define expected behaviors
Clearly Define Expected Behaviors
  • Set of “rules”
  • State positively and succinctly
  • Keep to five or fewer

Process

1. List problem behaviors

2. Identify “replacement behaviors” {what do you want them to do instead}

3. Create “matrix” of replacements by settings

procedures for teaching expected behaviors
Procedures for Teaching Expected Behaviors
  • Social skill instruction
    • teach the rule
    • demonstrate the skill
    • students practice the skill
    • review and test the skill
  • Embed in curriculum
  • Practice, Practice, Practice
procedures for encouraging expected behaviors
Procedures for Encouraging Expected Behaviors
  • Identify “rule” student met and specific behavior they displayed (verbal feedback)
  • Deliver reinforcement
    • Tangible to intrinsic
    • External to internal
    • Frequent to infrequent
    • Predictable to variable
procedures for discouraging problem behaviors
Procedures for Discouraging Problem Behaviors
  • CONSISTENCY
  • Clearly define problem behavior
  • Clear distinctions between staff/classroom and office managed behavior
  • Establish a continuum of procedures for correcting problem behavior
  • Establish data decision strategies for repeat offenses
data based decision making
Data-Based Decision Making

Types of Data

  • Office Discipline Referrals (SWIS.org)
  • Anecdotal data
  • Teacher, student, parent surveys
  • Direct observation (behavior counts)
  • Archival data (e.g., referrals to special education, attendance, academic performance, grade retention, attendance, suspensions/expulsions)
universal strategies non classroom settings
Universal Strategies: Non- Classroom Settings
  • Identify Setting Specific Behaviors
  • Develop Teaching Strategies
  • Develop Practice Opportunities and Consequences
  • Assess the Physical Characteristics
  • Establish Setting Routines
  • Identify Needed Support Structures
  • Data collection strategies
universal strategies classroom
Universal Strategies:Classroom

Needed at the classroom level...

  • Use of school-wide expectations/rules
  • Effective Classroom Management
    • Behavior management
    • Instructional management
    • Environmental management
  • Support for teachers who deal with students who display high rates of problem behavior
does implementation of pbis improve individual interventions
Does Implementation of PBIS improve individual interventions?
  • Illinois “profile” analysis.
    • Assessment of intervention effectiveness

Very Low, Low, Med, High, Very High

0 1 2 3 4

    • School-wide
    • Individual Intervention
slide43

t = 11.11 (335) p< .0001

  • t = 2.30 (27) p < .03

N=223

N=38

N=17

N=169

Partial

N=169

Full

N=223

Partial

N=17

Full

N=38

mental health outcomes
Mental Health Outcomes
  • Does School-wide PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention?

Minimizing and reducing “risk factors” by building “protective factors”

risk and protective factor comparison
Risk and Protective Factor Comparison

t = -2.17 (37) p < .036

t = 2.31 (37) p < .026

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18

impact on moving students to more restrictive settings
Impact on Moving Students to More Restrictive Settings

Columbia Public Schools

  • Elementary Schools who implement SW-PBS referred students to alternative/special school at lower rates compared to schools who were not implementing SW-PBS (r = -0.4306, p < 0.01)
  • Elementary Schools who implemented SW-PBS have less recidivism to alternative settings once students returned to home-school
example self contained special education building
Enrollment 200

50% free and reduced lunch

Ages 13 and up

Programs

Serves 8 component districts

Physically Impaired

Autism

Language Impaired

Hearing Impaired

Multiple/ Severe Disabilities

Emotional/Behavioral Disorder

ExampleSelf-contained Special Education Building
reported results
Reported Results
  • Reduction in inappropriate behavior (verbal aggression, sleeping in class, off task, disruption)
  • Increased prosocial behaviors and task completion
  • Post universal systems, only 5 students (from 33) required individualized support
group cost benefit
Group Cost Benefit

Office Referral Reduction Across

12 PBIS schools= 5,606

If one Office Referral=15 minutes of administrator time, then 5,606 x 15=

84,090 minutes

1401.15 hours or

233 days

of administrator time recovered and reinvested.

group cost benefit1
Group Cost Benefit

Office Referral Reduction

Across 12 PBIS Schools =5,606

If students miss 45 minutes of instruction for each Office Referral, 5,606 X 45=

252,270 minutes

4204.50 hours or

700 days

of instructional time recovered!!!!!

small group targeted
Small Group / Targeted
  • Part of a continuum: Must link to school-wide PBS system
  • Efficient and effective way to identify students
  • Assessment = simple sort
  • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized
small group targeted practices
Small Group / Targeted Practices
  • Social Skill Training
  • Self-Management
  • Mentors/Check-in
  • Peer tutoring / Peer Network
  • Academic support
individual students
Individual Students
  • Part of a continuum: Must link to school-wide PBS system
  • Quick supportive response to teacher
  • Plans based on a Functional Behavior Assessment
    • Clear process in place
    • Behavioral expertise available
    • All in school understand basic logic of FBA and PBS
individual support plans
Individual Support Plans
  • When small group not sufficient
  • When problem intense and chronic
  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment
  • Linked to school-wide system
process fba to pbs
Process (FBA to PBS)

Conduct functional behavioral assessment

Create plan based on functional assessment outcome

Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (school environment must change)

fba pbs plan process
FBA – PBS Plan Process

Success requires:

  • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS
  • Fluency with a clear process among all staff including their role
  • A basic understanding of the Applied Behavior Analysis = Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment
essential steps to individual pbs plans
Essential Steps to Individual PBS Plans
  • Request for assistance
  • Operationally define problem/replacement behavior
  • Background/archival data/ data collection/Environmental Assessment
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment
    • Indirect measures
    • Direct observation
  • Develop hypothesis regarding function of problem behavior
  • Develop a PBS plan
    • Social skill instruction
    • Self management
    • Environmental modifications
  • Implement, Monitor and Evaluate progress
response to intervention

Response to Intervention

Common school response to academic challenges = send to specialists to “be fixed”

designing school wide systems for student success1
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • High Intensity
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Targeted Group Interventions
  • Some students (at-risk)
  • High efficiency
  • Rapid response
  • Universal Interventions
  • All students
  • Preventive, proactive
  • Universal Interventions
  • All settings, all students
  • Preventive, proactive

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%

universal supports core instruction
Consistent “core” curriculum implemented school-wide (research-based)

Core instruction follows effective instructional practices (NWREL.org)

Core instruction implemented with fidelity

Consistent, prioritized, and protected time allocated to instruction

Data decision rules to identify a) those at high risk and b) “non-responders” in a timely manner

Universal Supports: Core Instruction
importance of effective instruction sanders 1999
Importance of Effective Instruction(Sanders, 1999)

The single biggest factor affecting academic growth of any population of youngsters is the effectiveness of classroom instruction.

The answer to why children learn well or not isn\'t race, it isn\'t poverty, it isn\'t even per-pupil expenditure at the elementary level.

The classroom’s effect on academic growth dwarfs and nearly renders trivial all these other factors that people have historically worried about.

early literacy behavior kelk lewis 2001
Early Literacy & Behavior(Kelk & Lewis, 2001)

What are the effects of three instructional conditions a) social skill instruction, b) phonological / phonemic awareness instruction, and c) a combination of social skill instruction and phonological awareness instruction on the reading related and/or social behavior of at-risk kindergarten children?

important themes
Important Themes

Part of a continuum – must link to core curriculum

Efficient and effective way to identify students (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS) through FREQUENT monitoring

Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized

targeted supports
Intensify Instruction

Increase academic engaged time

Small group / one:one

Increased opportunities to respond

Supplemental curriculum

Alter Instructional Environment

Rules & routines

Attention signal

Ratio of positive / negative statements

Efficient transitions

Active supervision

Targeted Supports
structural analysis setting factors assessment tool
Structural Analysis Setting Factors Assessment Tool

Level 1: Classroom Set-up and Structure

Level 2: Context Specific Activities

Level 3: Instructional Delivery and Tasks

Level 4: Student Behavior

case study
Case Study

SFAT

Significant variables: clarity of expectations & directions; consistency of expectations; accessibility of class schedules; lack of enforced procedures (especially regarding to hand raising and verbalizations or entire class).

individual
Individual

When small group/targeted not sufficient

When data indicate high risk*

Linked to core curriculum / outcomes

*limited data beyond literacy

individual intensive1
Individual/ Intensive

Targeted assessment (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS)

Instruction targets remediation and/or accommodation

Environment provides multiple and sustained engagement opportunities

Monitor outcomes and make necessary adjustments (progress monitoring)

big ideas
Big Ideas
  • Develop Core curriculum (social & academic)
    • Teach & Practice
  • Data-based decision making
    • Evaluate effectiveness
    • Identify “non-responders”
  • Continuum of supports firmly linked to core curriculum
    • Small group/targeted
    • Individual
  • Systems, systems, systems
  • Problem Solving using logic of PBS & RTI
scaling up
Scaling Up
  • Does not simply equal more schools or every school within a district/region/state
  • Outcome = increasing school’s adoption and sustained use of evidence-based practices with integrity that lead to improved academic and social outcomes for students with accompanying organizational supports to allow replication
research findings on scaling up fixsen naoom blase friedman wallace 2005 p 70
Research Findings on Scaling Up(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)
  • Best evidence documents what doesn’t work:
    • Information dissemination alone
    • Training by itself
research findings on scaling up fixsen naoom blase friedman wallace 2005 p 701
Research Findings on Scaling Up(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 70)
  • What does work
    • Long term, multi-level approaches
    • Skills-based training
    • Practice-based coaching
    • Practioner performance-feedback
    • Program evaluation
    • Facilitative administrative practices
    • Methods for systems intervention
recommendations fixsen naoom blase friedman wallace 2005 p 77
Recommendations(Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005, p. 77)
  • Develop partnerships with skilled researchers
  • Establish a community of practices at implementation sites
  • Share lessons learned across functional purveyor teams from different programs
slide93
Key

Build parallel systemic processes

  • Provide school/district teams with a process to address the presenting challenge (e.g., problem behavior, drop out, learning to read)
  • Develop a parallel process for districts/states to support school implementation and continue to expand with integrity (Blue Print Leadership Team)
district coordinator
District Coordinator

Professional Development

  • Coordinate professional development opportunities for current teams
  • Assist with training of new teams
  • Coordinate coaches training
  • Work with teams/coaches on development of resource bank (materials, examples, updates of website, etc.)

Communication

  • Coordinate communication across district
  • Attend principal and assistant principal meetings to provide PBS updates and to listen to school concerns/questions
  • Prepare quarterly & annual reports on progress of the district initiative for leadership team
  • Develop district PBS handbook

Coordination

  • Prepare leadership team agenda
  • Maintain file of building meeting minutes, coach logs, and other data sources from school teams
  • Meet with district coaches to problem solve
  • Develop connections between PBS initiative and district school improvement plan
  • Develop linkages to external agencies and PBS (e.g., mental health)
  • Explore funding opportunities to expand & support initiative
coaches
Coaches
  • Connect point between school teams and the district initiative
  • Provide technical assistance to school teams
  • Not intended to “lead” team, rather, serve as an additional resource
    • Access materials
    • Share examples from other schools
    • Updates from the district
school teams
School Teams
  • Principal or Deputy Principal + representatives of the school
  • Commit to on-going training
  • Develop/Draft essential components of school-wide system
  • Two-way Communication with colleagues
on school reform
On school reform…

Kauffman states “…attempts to reform education will make little difference until reformers understand that schools must exist as much for teachers as for student. Put another way, schools will be successful in nurturing the intellectual, social, and moral development of children only to the extent that they also nurture such development of teachers.” (1993, p. 7).

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