Comparison of drying kinetics of spent grain dried on inert material of different heat capacity
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COMPARISON OF DRYING KINETICS OF SPENT GRAIN DRIED ON INERT MATERIAL OF DIFFERENT HEAT CAPACITY.

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Comparison of drying kinetics of spent grain dried on inert material of different heat capacity

COMPARISON OF DRYING KINETICS OF SPENT GRAIN DRIED ON INERT MATERIAL OF DIFFERENT HEAT CAPACITY

Project financially supported by Polish Ministry of High School Education through the program “Supporting International Mobility of Researchers”and The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)

M.Zielinska a,bS. Cenkowskib

aDepartment of Agro-Food Process Engineering,

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn,

Olsztyn, Poland

bDepartment of Biosystems Engineering,

University of Manitoba,

Winnipeg, Canada


PLAN MATERIAL

Overview

Objective

Material

Experimental set up

Methodology

Experimental results


Overview
OVERVIEW MATERIAL

  • Ethanol production

  • Distiller’s spent grain

  • Superheated steam drying

  • Fluidized bed of inert particles

  • Mathematical modeling of SS drying


Object ive
OBJECT MATERIAL IVE

To determine the effect of different heat capacity of inert particle on the drying characteristics of slurry fraction of grain stillage at a selected range of SS temperatures and velocities


Material
MATERIAL MATERIAL

The initial moisture content of DSG fraction was 75.2 ± 0.6 % w.b.

Whole stillage

(Mohawk Canada Limited, Husky Oil Limited, Minnedosa, MB)

Slurry fraction of grain stillage

(wheat distiller’s spent grain, wet distillers’ grains, DSG)

Fig.1. The wheat whole stillage and slurry fraction of grain stillage


Inert material
INERT MATERIAL MATERIAL

Solid sphere

Hollow sphere

Size of a teflon spheres: 50.8 mm in diameter

Mass of a solid sphere: 149.2g

Mass of ahollow sphere: 69.2 g

Thickness of the layer of a hollow sphere: 3.5 mm

Fig. 2. Three dimensional view of the hollow teflon sphere


Sample preparation
SAMPLE PREPARATION MATERIAL

The mass of wet DSG used for one experiment 22.0 ± 0.1 g

equivalent to a 3 mm layer

(1)

(2)

(3)

(5)

(4)

Fig. 3. The sample preparation for multilayer drying experiments using single inert element


Operating parameters
OPERATING PARAMETERS MATERIAL

The steam temperature : 110, 130, 160°C

The velocity of steam : 0.5, 0.7, 1 m/s

Pressure:under or near atmospheric pressure(the max. chamber pressure was 1 kPa above atmospheric pressure)


S uperheated steam processing syste m
S MATERIAL UPERHEATED STEAM PROCESSING SYSTEM

Drying chamber

Data aquisition and control system

Steam generator

Condensation unit

Steam conveying pipes and valves

Water tank

Superheater

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the superheated steam processing system


MASS MEASUREMENTS MATERIAL

Mass balance

Drying chamber (outside)

Fan

Drying chamber (inside)

Fig.5. The superheated steam drying chamber





Experimental results
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature 160Cvelocity 1 m/s)

(3)

(4)

(2)

(1)

Fig. 6. Typical changes in moisture content and material temperature during DSG drying on solid sphere in SS


Experimental results1
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature 110, 130, 160C velocity 1 m/s

Hollow sphere

Solid sphere

Fig. 4. Changes in DSG moisture during drying on hollow and solid sphere


Experimental results2
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature 110, 130, 160C velocity 1 m/s

Hollow sphere

Solid sphere

3.12 kg/kg

3.54 kg/kg

3.38 kg/kg

3.81 kg/kg

Fig. 5. The enlarged initial stage of processing DSG in SS


Experimental results3
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature 160C velocity 0.5, 0.7, 1 m/s

Fig. 6. Moisture changes in DSG layer dried on hollow teflon sphere


Experimental results4
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature 160C velocity of 1 m/s

Fig. 7. A typical material temperature characteristics of DSG dried on hollow and solid inert material in SS


Experimental results5
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature110, 130, 160C velocity 1 m/s

Fig. 8. A typical material temperature characteristics of DSG dried on solid inert material in SS


Experimental results6
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS MATERIAL

Steam temperature160C velocity 0.5, 0.7, 1 m/s

Fig. 9. A typical material temperature characteristics of DSG dried on solid inert material in SS


Conclusion s
CONCLUSION MATERIAL S

The constant rate drying period and the falling drying rate period were noticeable for the SS drying of the DSG layer on single inert material

Drying on a solid sphere caused the initial moisture content of the sample to increase to the values 10% higher in comparison to the moisture gain on the DSG surface dried on a hollow sphere

The increase in SS temperature from 110 to 160C caused the initial moisture gain to decrease by 15%

The increase in SS velocity from 0.5 to 1.0 m/s caused the initial moisture gain to decrease by 10-15%


Conclusion s1
CONCLUSION MATERIAL S

The warm-up period of the DSG was influenced by the different heat capacity of inert material

Drying of the DSG on a hollow sphere in comparison to the drying on a solid sphere cut the entire drying time even by 30%

The increase in steam velocity from 0.5 m/s to 1.0 m/s resulted in shortening the entire drying time by almost 40%.

The material dried on the solid teflon sphere showed a substantial delay on the temperature rate increases in the 2nd rate period in comparison with drying on the hollow sphere.


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