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Thursday Lecture – Legumes. Reading: Textbook, Chapter 6. Optional Assignment - Due Tuesday March 1 Where do “baby carrots” come from? - How are they produced? [is there such a thing as a pregnant mama-carrot?!]. Quiz. Quiz What is a legume?

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thursday lecture legumes
Thursday Lecture – Legumes

Reading: Textbook, Chapter 6

slide2

Optional Assignment - Due Tuesday March 1

Where do “baby carrots” come from? - How are they produced?

[is there such a thing as a pregnant mama-carrot?!]

slide4

Quiz

  • What is a legume?
  • List two crop plants that are members of the legume family
slide6

Fabaceae = Leguminosae

Legume family (also called bean family or pea family)

slide7

Fabaceae = Leguminosae

Legume family (also called bean family or pea family)

“legere” – Latin for “too gather”

slide8

Fabaceae = Leguminosae

Legume family (also called bean family or pea family)

“legere” – Latin for “too gather”

19,000+ species – 3d largest

slide9

Fabaceae = Leguminosae

Legume family (also called bean family or pea family)

“legere” – Latin for “too gather”

19,000+ species – 3d largest

41 crop species – most of any family

slide10

Fabaceae = Leguminosae

Legume family (also called bean family or pea family)

“legere” – Latin for “too gather”

19,000+ species – 3d largest

41 crop species – most of any family

Cereal + Legume  complete protein

legume papilionoid flower
Legume – Papilionoid flower

See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138

legume papilionoid flower1
Legume – Papilionoid flower

See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138

Banner petal

legume papilionoid flower2
Legume – Papilionoid flower

See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138

Banner petal

wing

legume papilionoid flower3
Legume – Papilionoid flower

See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138

Banner petal

wing

keel

legume papilionoid flower4
Legume – Papilionoid flower

See Fig. 6.1, 6.2, page 138

Banner petal

wing

keel

Stamens: 9 + 1

other legumes1

See Fig. 6.1, page 137

Other Legumes

Acacia - Mimosoideae

Senna - Caesalpinoideae

nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen Fixation

Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems

nitrogen fixation1
Nitrogen Fixation

Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems

Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms

nitrogen fixation2
Nitrogen Fixation

Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems

Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms

How does nitrogen become available to living organisms?

nitrogen fixation3
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems
  • Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living organisms?
  • reaction is called “fixation”
nitrogen fixation4
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems
  • Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living organisms?
  • reaction is called “fixation”
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning strike)
nitrogen fixation5
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems
  • Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living organisms?
  • reaction is called “fixation”
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning strike)
  • some microorganisms can carry out this reaction
nitrogen fixation6
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Paradox – atmosphere is 80% nitrogen (N) yet N is a limiting factor for plant growth in almost all ecosystems
  • Resolution – atmospheric nitrogen is in a form (N2) that is not available for chemical reactions in biological organisms
  • How does nitrogen become available to living organisms?
  • reaction is called “fixation”
  • can occur with input of energy (lightning strike)
  • some microorganisms can carry out this reaction
  • mutualism between bacteria (Rhizobium etc.) and members of Fabaceae
can we transfer n fixation to other crops1
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes – development of nodule
can we transfer n fixation to other crops2
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes – development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude O2
can we transfer n fixation to other crops3
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes – development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition
can we transfer n fixation to other crops4
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes – development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition
  • Chemical reactions to carry out N2 fixation
can we transfer n fixation to other crops5
Can we transfer N-fixation to other crops?
  • See Box 6.1, page 141
  • Morphological changes – development of nodule
  • - critically important because need to exclude O2
  • Host/symbiont recognition
  • Chemical reactions to carry out N2 fixation
  •  Multiple genes, multiple chromosome locations, not trivial
nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

See Fig. 6.4, page 140

1. nitrogen fixation

2. ammonification

3. nitrification

atmospheric fixation

4. denitrification

ammonification

nitrogen fixing bacteria

nitrification

denitrifying bacteria

nutritional aspects of legumes
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
nutritional aspects of legumes1
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
nutritional aspects of legumes2
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins – complements grains
nutritional aspects of legumes3
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins – complements grains
  • High fiber levels
nutritional aspects of legumes4
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins – complements grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones – appear to lower cholesterol levels
nutritional aspects of legumes5
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins – complements grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones – appear to lower cholesterol levels
  • Phytoestrogens  may help relieve menopause symptoms
nutritional aspects of legumes6
Nutritional Aspects of Legumes

See Box 6.2, page 142

  • Legumes produce many N-containing compounds
  • - nutritious foods (proteins, vitamins)
  • - poisons (alkaloids, cyanogens)
  • Amino acid content of proteins – complements grains
  • High fiber levels
  • Isoflavones – appear to lower cholesterol levels
  • Phytoestrogens  may help relieve menopause symptoms
  • Oligosaccharides (beans, beans, the musical fruit … - see Box 6.3, page 150)
a poisonous legume
A Poisonous Legume

Abrus precatorius – Precatory Bean

Abrin – toxin, one of most toxic substances known

1 crushed seed can be fatal if ingested

legumes changes under domestication
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
legumes changes under domestication1
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
legumes changes under domestication2
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
legumes changes under domestication3
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
legumes changes under domestication4
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy
legumes changes under domestication5
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy
  • - question: which came first, domestication or loss of dormancy?
legumes changes under domestication6
Legumes – Changes Under Domestication
  • Annual habit, selfing breeding system
  • Less seed scattering
  • Greater seed size
  • Synchronous fruiting
  • Loss of dormancy
  • - question: which came first, domestication or loss of dormancy?
  • Recent studies – no common set of “domesticated genes”
major legume food crops pulses
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses

Pulses: dried legume seeds used for food

major legume food crops pulses1
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses

Pulses: dried legume seeds used for food

Near East: lentils, peas, chick-peas, broad beans

Far East: soybean, pigeon pea

Africa: cowpeas

Mexico: common bean, lima bean

South America: common bean, lima bean, peanut

major legume food crops pulses2
Major Legume Food Crops - Pulses

Pulses: dried legume seeds used for food

Near East: lentils, peas, chick-peas, broad beans

Far East: soybean, pigeon pea

Africa: cowpeas

Mexico: common bean, lima bean

South America: common bean, lima bean, peanut

Commonality: Legumes – food of the poor

near eastern pulses 1 lentils
Near Eastern Pulses – 1. Lentils

Lens culinaris – genus name refers to shape of seeds

near eastern pulses 1 lentils1
Near Eastern Pulses – 1. Lentils

Lens culinaris – genus name refers to shape of seeds

near eastern pulses 2 peas
Near Eastern Pulses – 2. Peas

Pisum sativum – used as food since ancient times (8-9,000 yrs ago) and domesticated by about 5,800 yrs ago.

peas porridge or green
Peas – porridge or green

Pease porridge hot

Pease porridge cold

Pease porridge in the pot

Nine days old

1600s – first use as fresh green vegetable (Holland)

Specialized peas: snow peas, sugar snap peas – bred so that pods are edible in entirely, have high sugar levels

near eastern pulses 3 broad beans
Near Eastern Pulses – 3. Broad Beans

Vicia faba – from Mediterranean region, cultivated 8800 yrs ago.

Favism – type of anemia, aggravated in susceptible individual by Vicia alkaloids

cow without bones soybean
“cow-without-bones” - soybean

Glycine max – domesticated in China >3000 yrs ago.

the cinderella crop
The “Cinderella Crop”

U.S. – introduced as crop in 1765

the cinderella crop1
The “Cinderella Crop”

U.S. – introduced as crop in 1765

1920s – used for fruit rather than just forage

the cinderella crop2
The “Cinderella Crop”

U.S. – introduced as crop in 1765

1920s – used for fruit rather than just forage

Soybeans contain a trypsin inhibitor, destroyed by heating

soybean products
Soybean Products

Oriental Foodstuffs: Miso, Tofu, Tempeh, Soy Milk, Soy Sauce

Soybean Oil – widely used

Soy proteins – used in many products

Soy lecithin – widely used in chocolate products

Non-food uses: inks, plastics, cleaners

other old world pulses
Other Old World Pulses

Pigeon peas, Cajanus cajan – from India

Black-eyed peas (Cowpeas), Vigna unguiculata – from Africa, in U.S. considered to be southern regional specialty

soybean products1
Soybean Products

Oriental Foodstuffs: Miso, Tofu, Tempeh, Soy Milk, Soy Sauce

Soybean Oil – widely used

Soy proteins – used in many products

Soy lecithin – widely used in chocolate products

Non-food uses: inks, plastics, cleaners

roundup glyphosate
Roundup - Glyphosate

Herbicide – chemical structure:

roundup glyphosate1
Roundup - Glyphosate

Herbicide – chemical structure:

Mode of action: blocks synthesis of certain amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimic acid pathway)

roundup glyphosate2
Roundup - Glyphosate

Herbicide – chemical structure:

Mode of action: blocks synthesis of certain amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimic acid pathway)

 Toxic to most plants, but not to animals

roundup glyphosate3
Roundup - Glyphosate

Herbicide – chemical structure:

Mode of action: blocks synthesis of certain amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimic acid pathway)

  • Toxic to most plants, but not to animals

Note: can still be toxic to animals, not just the active chemical but other components of the formulation

roundup glyphosate4
Roundup - Glyphosate

Herbicide – chemical structure:

Mode of action: blocks synthesis of certain amino acids (aromatic amino acids produced by the shikimic acid pathway)

  • Toxic to most plants, but not to animals

Note: can still be toxic to animals, not just the active chemical but other components of the formulation

Monsanto Chemical Company – major moneymaker – while under patent protection

monsanto post roundup
Monsanto - post-Roundup

Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate

monsanto post roundup1
Monsanto - post-Roundup

Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate

Source of resistance:

(1) microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosate

monsanto post roundup2
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance:
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter glyphosate structure to make it harmless
monsanto post roundup3
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance:
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) – Monsanto has created crops that are resistant to glyphosate “Roundup Ready”
monsanto post roundup4
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance:
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) – Monsanto has created crops that are resistant to glyphosate “Roundup Ready”
  • First Major Target: Soybeans, very successful
monsanto post roundup5
Monsanto - post-Roundup
  • Next stage  produce genetically modified crops that are resistant to glyphosate
  • Source of resistance:
  • microorganisms, have enzyme that is resistant to glyphosate
  • Microorganisms or plants, find enzymes that alter glyphosate structure to make it harmless
  • Using (1) – Monsanto has created crops that are resistant to glyphosate “Roundup Ready”
  • First Major Target: Soybeans, very successful
  • Can spray crop after germination, kill weeds but crop little affected
roundup ready wheat
Roundup Ready Wheat
  • The Latest Battlefield in the “Biotech Wars”:
  • Roundup Ready Crops: corn, soybeans, cotton
  • None of these have major use in human consumption
  • Roundup Ready Wheat: produced and marketed by Monsanto
  • major use of wheat = human food
  • major export crop ( Japan, Europe)
  • Worry: if any farmers grown GM Wheat, some importers (Japan) will ban all wheat from U.S.  all farmers will lose this market
new world beans 1 lima beans
New World Beans – 1. Lima Beans

Phaeolus lunata – Mexico to Peru, independently domesticated in the two areas. Mostly used dry. Wild plants and some cultivars contain cyanogenic glycosides – release toxic cyanide (cooking destroys compounds)

new world beans 2 common beans
New World Beans – 2. Common Beans

Phaseolus vulgaris – source of many types

Another independent domesticate in Mexico and South America

beans beans beans
Beans, Beans, Beans

Selection for the variations in the seed in color and size have produced a bewildering number of variants, several of which have widespread use in our country.

Kidney bean

Black bean

Pinto bean

another new world legume peanut
Another New World Legume - Peanut

Arachis hypogaea – peanut, ground nut, goober central South America

forage legumes sitting in the clover
Forage Legumes – Sitting in the Clover

Alfalfa – Medicago sativa - king of forage crops – associated with horse husbandry

Clovers – Trifolium

Lespedeza

Sweet Clovers - Melilotus

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