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Spotlight of Diversity on Asian-Americans. Presented by: Jennifer Christensen Liz Garvison Tim Moon Elia Surbert With special guest Maryanne Avecilla. They include : Chinese Japanese Filipino Indochinese. Also include people from: India Pakistan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Kashmir

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Spotlight of diversity on asian americans

Spotlight of Diversity onAsian-Americans

Presented by:

Jennifer Christensen

Liz Garvison

Tim Moon

Elia Surbert

With special guest

Maryanne Avecilla


Who are asian americans

They include :

Chinese

Japanese

Filipino

Indochinese

Also include people from:

India

Pakistan

Sri Lanka

Bangladesh

Kashmir

Nepal

Bhutan

Burma

Who Are Asian Americans?



There is an unfortunate tendency to make the following misperceptions about asian americans
There is an unfortunate tendency to make the following misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • Because they look alike, they are similar.

  • They have an intimate connection to their ancestral homeland.

  • They tend to isolate and concentrate in their own communities


History

1835 misperceptions about Asian AmericansU.S. and China sign first treaty.

1848Gold discovered in California. Chinese begin to arrive

1854People v. Hall rules that Chinese can’t give testimony in court.

U.S. and Japan sign first treaty.

1858California passes a law to bar entry of Chinese and "Mongolians."

History


Railroad
Railroad misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • Men of SteelIn 1963, construction began on the transcontinental railroad—1,776 miles of tracks that would form a link between America's West and East coasts.

  • 1865Central Pacific Railroad Co. recruits Chinese workers for the transcontinental railroad.

  • 1867Two thousand Chinese railroad workers strike for a week.


History continued

1872 misperceptions about Asian AmericansCalifornia's Civil Procedure Code drops law barring Chinese court testimony

1880U.S. and China sign treaty giving the U.S. the right to limit but "not absolutely prohibit" Chinese immigration. Section 69 of California's Civil Code prohibits issuing of licenses for marriages between whites and "Mongolians, Negroes, mulattoes and persons of mixed blood."

1888Scott Act renders 20,000 Chinese reentry certificates null and void.

1898Wong Kim Ark v. U.S. decides that Chinese born in the U.S. can't be stripped of their citizenship

1903Filipino students (pensionados) arrive in the U.S. for higher education

1905Section 60 of California's Civil Code amended to forbid marriage between whites and "Mongolians.“

History Continued


Continued
Continued misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • 1917Arizona passes an Alien Land Law. 1917 Immigration Law defines a geographic "barred zone" (including India) from which no immigrants can come

  • 1922Takao Ozawa v. U.S. declares Japanese not eligible for naturalized citizenship

  • 1923U.S. v. Bhagat Singh Thind declares Asian Indians not eligible for naturalized citizenship.


More history
More History misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • 1941

    December 7th Japanese Attack pearl Harbor.

  • 110,000 Japanese people in concentration camps run by the U.S. during WWII.

  • 19495000 highly educated Chinese in the U.S. granted refugee status after China institutes a Communist government

http://www.densho.org/assets/sharedpages/primarysource/primarysource.asp?id=117&display_format=4&section=causes


More misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • 1946Wing F. Ong becomes first Asian American to be elected to state office in the Arizona House of Representatives.

  • 1964Patsy Takemoto Mink becomes first Asian American woman to serve in Congress as representative from Hawaii.

  • 1976President Gerald Ford rescinds Executive Order 9066.

  • 1987The U.S. House of Representatives votes 243 to 141 to make an official apology to Japanese Americans

  • 1988The U.S. Senate votes 69% to 27 to support redress for Japanese Americans. American Homecoming Act allows children in Vietnam born of American fathers to emigrate to the U.S.


Clark county
Clark County misperceptions about Asian Americans

  • More than 100 Chinese were hired in 1893 to dig the Eureka Ditch, which would drain a swampy agricultural area in east Clark County. It later became known as "China Ditch" and ran alongside what is now 172nd Avenue.


The leaders and trailblazers
THE LEADERS AND TRAILBLAZERS misperceptions about Asian Americans


The first national Asian American political leaders came from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

The first mainland Asian American to become a member of the U.S. House of Representatives was Dalip Singh Saund

Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao

Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta

Former U.S. Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Bill Lann Lee

Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawai'I

Governor of the state of Washington Gary Locke, the first Asian American governor outside of Hawai'i


Discrimination in the 1800 s
Discrimination in the 1800’s from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • Foreign Miner’s Tax (1850)


Discrimination in the 1800’s from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Police Tax (1862)


Discrimination in the 1800’s from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Burlingame Treaty (1868)

Protection from discrimination, exploitation, and violence.

Recognize the right of people to free migration & emigration.


Forbidden Love in the 1800’s from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Section 69: California Civil Code Amended (1880)


CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Decade long ban on Chinese immigration. (1882)

The Brady’s defend themselves against "a howling mob of Chinks," in San Francisco's Chinatown. The stereotypical Chinese villains in these stories run opium dens and take great delight in abducting white women who they attempt to hook on the drug.


Chinese Exclusion Act from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Sign in lower right corner says “No more dumping allowed.”

Poster from 1883


“Ruin to white labor, Diseases, Immorality, Filth” from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.


Unequal Impact (1886) from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • Yick Wo v. Hopkins – Successful court case brought forth by Chinese laundrymen. Court declares a law with “unequal impact” on different groups is discriminatory.


Discrimination in the 1800’s from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

The Scott Act (1888)


Plague Scares 1896 & 1900 from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Bubonic plague scare in Honolulu in 1896

Bubonic plague scare in San Francisco in 1900

Honolulu’s Chinatown burned! San Francisco Chinatown cordoned off and quarantined.


Alien Land Laws from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • California (1913)

  • Arizona (1917)

New Mexico (1922)

Idaho, Montana, & Oregon (1923)


Cable Act (1922) from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Any American female (citizen) who married an “alien ineligible to receive citizenship” would lose her citizenship.

Amended in 1931 to allow the American women to renaturalization rights at a later date (upon divorce).


Immigration Act of 1924 from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Denies entry of nearly all Asians.

Immigration Act of 1965 – abolishes “national origins” as basis for allocating quotas.

Homeland Security now handles most INS functions.


Executive Order 9066 from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Established “relocation camps” for Japanese-Americans & Japanese Immigrants.


E.O. 9066 from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066 in 1942.

President Gerald Ford in 1976 rescinds E.O. 9066.

Referred to as a “grave injustice” by the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians committee in 1981.


Reparations from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Fight for reparations began to gain momentum in 1987.


Reparations Finalized from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Passed 243-141 in US House of Representatives.

Each surviving internee granted $20,000.

Passes US Senate in 1988, 69-27.

President George H.W. Bush signs it into law in 1989.


Covered In Psych 309 from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

  • Equal Employment Act of 1972

  • Executive Order 11246 in 1965

  • Civil Rights Act of 1991


Recent legislation
Recent Legislation from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • H.R. 302 – Filipino Veteran Equity Act

  • H.R. 1492 – Preservation of Historic Sites of Japanese Detention

  • H.R. 893 – Restitution for individuals of Japanese ancestry forced to the U.S. during WWII


Culture… from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.


The first Asian immigrants…the Chinese American Family from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • Cantonese- or Toisanese speaking Chinese

  • Mandarin-speaking Chinese


Confucianism from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Confucian morality held sacred a system of hierarchies based on:

generation,

age and

gender


Values of Chinese Americans from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Education is highly valued.

A strong sense of responsibility towards relatives exists.

A failure to live up to elders’ expectations results in self-blame.

Respect for elders is equated with respect for authority.


Life-Cycle transitions from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

A stigma was attached to divorce- some desperate Chinese American women even took their own lives seeing it as the only way out.

In 1990, the divorce rate was 2.3%-3.3% compared to white men and women (7.5% and 9.4%) and slightly lower than those of other Asian American groups.

87.6% of Chinese American children live in a two parent household.


3 central strengths found in Chinese American family from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Cultural continuity, despite early immigrant adversities.

The absorption of extended family members.

The financial contribution of women.


Japanese American from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.


Religions from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

  • Confucianism and feudalism

  • Buddhism

  • Shinto

    • A survey conducted in 1995 reveled that Japanese cultural values of loyalty and harmony are strongly embedded in Confucianism and feudalism, yet the Japanese lives are not strongly influenced by religion.


The hierarchical Japanese family system, or from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.ie

Inheritance in direct succession from generation to generation.

Leadership role is inherited by the oldest son who also inherits the family estate.

The ie system gives absolute authority over individual family members to the father or family council which included making all of the important decisions: occupational choices and marriage partners.


Key force that shaped the lives of Japanese Americans…WWII from Hawai'i - U.S. House of Representative and Senate in the 1950s.

Following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941 more than 40,000 Japanese living on the Pacific Coast and their 70,000 American-born children who were US citizens were removed from their homes and incarcerated in “relocation camps”.


Since the revised 1965 Immigration Act which abolished the national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.


Values national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

The Japanese American family are more likely to be nuclear- but also tend to live closer to family and all age groups participate in family activities.

Deference to and respect for elders- a strong commitment to family and caring for the elderly parents.

Male head of household but an encouragement for children to assimilate into the mainstream culture.

Educational achievement was seen as a success of acculturation.


Life-cycle transitions national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

Japanese Americans tend to marry later in life than other Asian American groups.

50-60% of Japanese marriages are cross-cultural.

Japanese Americans have one of the lowest rates of divorce of any group in the United States.

The proportion of Japanese American female heads of household without husbands is around 11.9%.


3 strengths of the Japanese American Family national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

Strong family solidarity, despite adverse historical experiences.

Strong feelings of obligation and commitment towards parents.

Tolerance toward family diversity.


Asian Indians national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

Diversity within India-

83% are Hindus

11% are Muslims

3% are Christians

2% are Sikhs

India is divided into many castes, tribes, languages and subcultures which results in a variety of traditional practices.


Presence in the United States national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

Before 1965 quota restricted 100 Indians to immigrate annually.

Between 1965- 1970 over 26,000

During the 1980’s approx. 20,000 entered each year.

Among Asian populations, Asian Indians are one of the fastest growing groups in the United States.

1990 US Census-approx. 815,447

2001 US Census- approx. 1,678,765


“Model Minority” national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

Seen as a model minority due to their high level of education and privileged socioeconomic status which enables them to find employment and maintain income levels.

They are exposed to Western values and beliefs.

There educational system is distinctly Western European and as a result most are fluent in English.


Family system national origin system only 3% of all Asian immigrants since 1965 have been Japanese. This makes them the only Asian American population that has more native-born than foreign-born members.

  • Three or more generations may live together forming a joint family system.

    • Interdependence, group solidarity, and conformity are highly valued.

    • Behavior roles are governed by age, gender and generational status.

    • Social roles are rigid and formal and are enforced by using shame and guilt as a means of control.


Families are hierarchy and chronological age based which results in:

Asian Indian children are often docile and reserve and obedient to American teachers.

Great deal of pressure is placed on children’s scholastic success.

Communication between parents and children tend to be hierarchical and one-sided.


Religious observance does not decline for the Asian Indian immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Families regularly visit temples and have statues of divinities. Some families have regular offerings and prayers.

Despite economic and occupational success, Asian Indians tend not to integrate socially.


Life cycle immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

A high value is placed on marriage and family but love and passions are not necessary components.

The pattern of male-dominated marriages continue to be the norm.

Divorce is rare and there is a strong taboo against parenthood without marriage.

Respect for elderly and their wisdom

Supporting parents when they become unable to do so.


3 Strengths if Asian Indian immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Family plays important role

Strong sense of everyone’s well-being

They are urban and are partially Westernized which enables the process of assimilation.


Asian americans in the workforce

Asian Americans in the Workforce immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Specific Challenges


Interview with Khue immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Vietnam

  • Came to America in 1979

  • Bachelor’s degree in Accounting

  • Bank manager in Vietnam


Khue’s First Months in US immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Did not speak English

  • Took ESL classes

  • Bachelor’s degree not accepted in US

  • Not able to get a job

  • Not able to get comparable job

  • Difficult transition into US workforce


Khue’s Transition into Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • 6 months to find job

  • Took job she had never done before

  • Emotions – depressed, frustrated

  • Learned by watching and duplicating


Khue in the Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Took new production job in 1986

  • Felt there was chance for advancement

  • Company offered ESL classes at Portland Community College

  • English skills improved

  • Communication skills improved


Khue in the Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • After 9 years she became a production supervisor

  • Has been with company for nearly 20 years

  • Supervises 27 employees


Khue in the Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Diverse workforce

    • Filipino

    • Laotian

    • Vietnamese

    • Chinese

    • African


Khue in the Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Glass ceiling – Yes

Further advancement with the company requires a bachelor’s degree


Can you guess the #1 problem in this organization? immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Language barrier


Communication immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Communication barrier

  • Culture barrier

    • To help or not to help?

    • Expectations differ

  • Management

    • Concerned about getting the job done

    • Use language of your choice


Discrimination in the Workplace immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

  • Emphasis on performance rather than group association

  • Racial discrimination not overt at company


Reference immigrant but instead the move to a different cultures spurs them to cultivate their religious identity.

Sharon Goto

Asian Americans experience racial discrimination at lower levels than Blacks or Hispanics.


How organizations can better accommodate needs of these groups

  • Offer basic and intermediate language classes to employees either on or off site

    • Portland Community College

    • Other facility


How organizations can better accommodate needs of these groups

Diversity training onsite to bridge the gap


How organizations can better accommodate needs of these groups

Mediator for conflict resolution


Asian American Population Growth groups

  • From 1980 to 1990

    3.6 million Asians enter America

  • 95.2% increase in 10 years

Frederick T.L. Leong


Asian American Population Growth Increase groups

  • Vietnamese 151%

  • Laotian 212%

  • Cambodian 819%

  • Hmong 1631%


References
References groups

  • Chan, S. (1991). Chronology of Asian American History. Asian Americans, an Interpretive History. Boston, MA: Twayne Publishers. Retrieved October 20, 2005 http://web.mit.edu/21h.153j/www/chrono.html

  • Columbian, The. Chinese Laborers Left Mark in County. Retrieved October 20, 2005 http://www.columbian.com/HISTORY/CHINADITCH.CFM

  • DeGenova, M.K. (1997). Families in cultural context: strengths and challenges in diversity. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

  • Goto, S.G., Chong, K., James, I., Abe-Kim, J., & Park, C. (1999). Asian American Experiences with Racial & Ethnic Discrimination at Work: Employment discrimination among Asian Americans & its relationship to health status. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from PsycINFO database. http://medicine.ucsf.edu/programs/cwhs/2000/abstract.sg.htm

  • Kabagarama, A.D. (2005). Breaking the ice: a guide to understanding people from other cultures. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

  • Leong, F.T.L. (1995). Understanding and Counseling the Fastest Growing Ethnic Minority Group. Contemporary Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 6.

  • Narasaki, K. (2004). Brown v. Board of education (1954) & Asian Americans 50th anniversary. National Asian Pacific American Legal Consortium. Washington D.C:

  • Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Massagli, Michael P; Clarridge, Brian R; Manocchia, Michael; Davis, Roger B; lezzoni, Lisa I; Phillips, Russell. Linguistic and Cultural Barriers to Care: Perspectives of Chinese and Vietnamese Immigrants Journal of General Internal Medicine. Vol 18(1), Jan 2003, pp.44-52

  • U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: Census, 2000.

  • Yi Feng Chen and Dean Tjosvold. Cross-cultural leadership: Goal interdependence and leader–member relations in foreign ventures in China Journal of International Management, Volume 11, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 417-439


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