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GeSCI-PanAf Workshop on Research in ICT Education & Development GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education The Phase 2 Report Mary Hooker [email protected] Research Project Manager GeSCI eLearning Africa 2010

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GeSCI-PanAf Workshop on Research in ICT Education & Development

GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education

The Phase 2 Report

Mary Hooker

[email protected]

Research Project Manager

GeSCI

eLearning Africa 2010

Creating an Enabling Environment for Implementing and Sustaining ICT and Knowledge Society Interventions

PanAfrican Research Agenda

on the Pedagogical Integration of ICTs

26th May 2010 Mulungushi International Conference Centre, Lusaka, Zambia

slide2

P1 Meta-review Background

Major purposes for ICT meta-review

  • multi-disciplinary lens
  • relevant research themes
  • contemporary trends
slide3

Major P1 Themes for ICT

(2006-2008)

1. Leadership / management

2. Infrastructure / accessibility

3. Integration into T & L

4. Teacher education

5. Educational content

  • Challenges / constraints
  • Evolving field developments
  • “Hot” topics
  • Research gaps

Le Baron & McDonough 2009a

slide4

Key Findings from Phase 1

P1 Themes: Time to rebuild?

  • ICT success depends on transformed practice
  • ICT needs better alignment with learning research
  • Holistic development trump piecemeal
  • No disruption – no change
  • Implementation must respond to local culture
  • Policy needs multi-sector, cross-hierarchical coordination
  • Equity means more than hardware
slide5

Phase 2 Report

P2 Themes: Building towards inclusion?

1. Leadership / management

2. Relevance / transformation

3. Equity of access

What’s going on?

What works?

How do we deploy resources?

What do we need to know?

Le Baron & McDonough 2009b

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Global Monitoring Report 2010

The Inclusive Education Triangle

Strengthening the learning environment

Expanding entitlements & opportunities

Improving accessibility & affordability

UNESCO 2010

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P2 Metaphors for Leadership

Strengthening the learning environment?

‘Grammar of schooling’ (Martinez & Correa)

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P2 Metaphors for Leadership

Strengthening the learning environment?

  • Contemporary schooling worldwide structured on a hierarchical industrial model
  • Educational leaders need to create “disruption” to change grammatical rules
  • Locus of leadership at school level for constructive innovation
  • Sound educational planning to realize benefits of massive technology infusion
  • ‘Landscape’ of teacher education (Bigam & Rowan)
  • Critical success factors for ICT-rich transformation
    • Vision-driven professional development, persistent communication, material resources, ongoing research

‘Grammar of schooling’ (Martinez & Correa)

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Transformation & Relevance

Expanding entitlements & opportunities?

‘Back to the future’ (progressivism)

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Transformation & Relevance

Expanding entitlements & opportunities?

  • Lasting knowledge is “constructed” by learners based on social interaction with peers
  • ICT offers many affordances for effective creation of ‘constructivist’ learning environments
  • At risk students may particularly benefit
  • Organic integration and authentic collaboration across cultural boundaries
  • Technology cannot be "disruptive" if curriculum driving it is not itself disrupted
  • Heutagogy – 21st century teaching based on truly self-determined learning
  • Digital learners and analog practices
  • Digital schooling from analog structures
  • Is more really more? (1:1)

‘Back to the future’ (progressivism)

slide11

Equity of Access

Improving accessibility & affordability?

Gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, special needs, SES

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Equity of Access

Improving accessibility & affordability?

Gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, special needs, SES

  • Differences in resource access between genders on the wane in developed countries
  • Culture matters – in some cultures boys more confident in ICT use than female peers
  • Inequities can be reduced through creative strategies – gaming, peer coaching, role modelling, adult mentoring
  • Inequities across and within national boundaries on basis of affluence & socio economic status revealed
  • Attitude differences; training and support distinctions
  • Equity means more than hardware count
  • Inclusive transformational vision requires research into what has been accomplished with counted machines
slide13

Inclusive Education:

The Role of ICTs

Country Programme Examples

  • Rwanda – gender disparities non-existent in newly qualified teachers where male and female graduates display equal facility in computer use and where ICT literacy represents a force to transcend gender inequity and promote continued female education (Makama & Andersson 2008)
  • South Africa - strategic collaboration between government, private sector and civil society in initiatives such as the Mindset Network Organization and the Khanya Education Technology Project using ICT to both promote access to secondary education and serve as change agents in a paradigm shift of teaching and learning (Evoh 2007)
  • Nigeria - ICT use as an ODL vehicle for transforming the educational scene –cellular mobile telephony enabling experiments with adult literacy learners as well as opening doors to economic empowerment of adult illiterates (Aderinoye 2008)
  • Cape Verde - distance education and ICT modalities utilized to address equity and ensure sustainability of provision in problematic areas of post-primary and tertiary education (Atchoarena, Da Grace & Marquez 2008)

Gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, special needs, SES

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Unexpected Findings

Absence of the Southern Voice in the Literature

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Unexpected Findings

Absence of the Southern Voice in the Literature

  • The global knowledge economy follows an established hierarchy even as it is premised on ideals of equality. It does not always involve the unfettered movement of capital, technology, ideas or people, but often entails the one-way movement of educated elite out of countries… (Stambach & Maleka 2006 p333)
  • Researchers ask whether the apparent isolation of Lesser Developed Countries (LDCs) is not more attributable to the on-going prejudices of the developed world as it is to LDC shortcomings (Le Baron & McDonough 2009 p30)
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Some questions for discussion

  • Should education be re-visualized to optimize the impact of emerging ICT technologies?
  • How can we enhance the dialogue between ICT4E research, policy and development of education practice?
  • How can we use innovative research at ‘classroots’ (micro) and institutional (meso) levels to inform and shape policy at national (macro) level in a way which will lead to transformational change?
  • How can research networks adequately support governments in monitoring ICT policy as it turns into action?

Thank you!

slide17

References

Aderinoye, R. 2008. Literacy and communication technologies: Distance education strategies for literacy delivery. International Review of Education. 54 pp605-626

Atchoarena, D., DaGraca, P.D., & Marquez, J.M. 2008. Strategies for post-primary education in small island developing states {SIDA}: Lessons from Cape Verde. Comparative Education. 44 (2), pp167-185

Bigum, C. & Rowan, L. 2008. Landscaping on shifting ground: Teacher education in a digitally transforming world. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education. 36 (3), pp245-255

Evoh, C.J. 2007. Collaborative partnerships and the transformation of secondary education through ICTs in South Africa. Educational Media International. 44 (2), pp 81-98

Le Baron, J. and McDonough, B. 2009a. Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase 1 [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: http://www.gesci.org/publications.html Available from ERIC at: http://www.eric.gov/ERICdocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/45/4f/5e.pdf[Accessed 22 April 2010]

b

slide18

References

Le Baron, J. and McDonough, B. 2009b. Research Report for GeSCI Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase 2 [Online]. Available from GeSCI at: http://www.gesci.org/publications.html Available from ERIC at: http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/47/3d/3a.pdf [Accessed 22 April 2010]

Martinez Aebelaiz, A. & Correa Gorospe, J.M. 2009. Can the grammar of schooling be changed? Computers & Education. 53 (1), pp51-56

Mukama, E., & Andersson, S.B. 2008. Coping with change in ICT-Based learning environments: Newly qualified Rwanda teachers’ reflections. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 24 (2), 156-166

Stambach, A. & Malekela, G.A. 2006. Education, technology and the “new” knowledge economy: Views from Bongoland. Globalisation, Societies and Education. 4 (3), pp321-336

UNESCO 2010. Education for All - Global Monitoring Report: Reaching the marginalized [Online]. Available from UNESCO at: http://www.unesco.org/en/efareport/ [Accessed 24 April 2010]

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