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review 2. American Demography & Immigration. Nascent Immigration The Slave Trade South Southwest Old Immigration New Immigration Newest Immigration Current Immigration.

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American Demography & Immigration

  • Nascent Immigration

  • The Slave Trade South Southwest

  • Old Immigration

  • New Immigration

  • Newest Immigration

  • Current Immigration

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Some Basic Concepts

4 Key Questions

  • What is the nature of inter-group relations in multiethnic societies?

  • How are the various ethnic groups ranked and what are consequences of that ranking system?

  • How does the dominant group maintain its place and how do subordinate groups attempt to change that?

  • What are the long-range outcomes of ethnic inter-relations?

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Some Basic Concepts

Ethnic Groups

  • Unique cultural Traits

  • Sense of Community

  • Ethnocentrism

  • Ascribed Membership

  • Territoriality

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Some Basic Concepts

  • As a Biological Notion

  • As a Social Construct

  • In the Ideology of Racism


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Ethnic Stratification

Dominant Groups

Political, Economic, and Cultural Dominance

Middleman Minorities

Minority Groups

Differential Treatment

Social Definition

Differential Power

Categorical Nature

Sociological and Numerical Meanings

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Ethnic Stratification

  • Conquest

  • Annexation

  • Voluntary Immigration

  • Involuntary Immigration

Forms of Contact

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Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Prejudice Stereotypes Social Distance

  • DiscriminationIndividual Institutional Structural

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Assimilation and Pluralism

  • Manner of Entrance

  • Time of Entrance

  • Demographic Factors

  • Cultural Similarity

  • Visibility

Factors Affecting Assimilation

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Assimilation and Pluralism


  • Cultural Assimilation

  • Structural Assimilation

  • Biological Assimilation

  • Psychological Assimilation

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Assimilation and Pluralism

Types of Pluralism

  • Equalitarian PluralismAmerican Case Non-American Cases

  • Inequalitarian PluralismCompetitive Race Relations Internal Colonialism Annihilation or Expulsion

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Assimilation and Pluralism

Typology of Multiethnic Societies

Colonial Societies

Corporate Pluralistic Societies

Assimilationist Societies

See Figure 4.1 and Table 4.2

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Historical Context

  • Manner of Entry and Racial Status

  • Development

  • Mexican-Americans conquest/annexation voluntary immigration-economic push-pull

  • Puerto Ricans voluntary immigration- - economic push-pull and relative political ease

  • Cubans involuntary immigration-early political push voluntary immigration-economic push-pull

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Demographics Today

  • Population-young, rapidly growing, continuing migration and high birth rate

  • Geography

  • Mexican-Americans-Southwest and dispersed

  • Puerto Ricans-New York +

  • Cubans-Miami, Florida +

  • Others-the same major metropolitan areas

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Socioeconomic Status

  • Income and Wealth

  • Occupation

  • Education

  • Special Cuban Case-institutional completeness

  • Outlook

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Political Power

  • Mexican-Americans increasingly influential

  • Puerto Ricans limited extent

  • Cubans dominant force

  • Outlook

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Demography Today

  • Population-13% of America

  • Diversity-involuntary and voluntary immigrants

  • Geographical Patterns-urban

  • Economic Status

    Occupation-5.2 unemployment vs 10.8

    Education-89 vs 80 and 30 vs 17

  • Class or Race?

  • Societal Power

    Political Power-mixed and very local

    Economic Power-less than political

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Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Formation of Ghettos-own preference or discrimination?

  • Residential Segregation-dominative vs aversive?

  • Changes in Racial Attitudes-surveys

  • Stereotypes and Social Distance-racial liberalism

  • Attitudes and Actions-ambivalence in action

  • Contrasting Views

    of Socioeconomic Gap-own shortcomings or discrimination?

    of Problems and Solutions-mopping up or deeply rooted?

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Assimilation or Pluralism

  • Assimilation


    Structural-secondary only

    Assimilation Model-very slow, unstable family?

    Assimilation and Visibility

  • Inequalitarian Pluralistic Model

    -internal colonial model

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Immigration and Settlement

  • First Wave



  • Second Wave




    Asian Indians


  • Demographics Today

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In the Class System

  • Socioeconomic Status




  • Ethnic and Class Factors in Upward Mobility

  • Political Power

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Prejudice and Discrimination

  • The ‘Yellow Peril’

  • Japanese Internment

  • In the Modern Era

  • vs other Minorities

  • As Model Minority

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Historical Context

  • as immigrants

  • as a conquered indigenous population

  • displacement and depopulation

  • American policy: economic-land cultural-assimilation political-control

  • Indian policy: tribal survival (maintenance of relations and distinct cultural orders) political autonomy

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Native American Demographics

  • Population Growth Reservation Indians Urban Indians

  • Socioeconomic Status Economic Education Health

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Comparative Diversity

Canada vs US

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The Evolution of the English-French Schism

  • The English Conquest

  • Confederation

  • The New French-Canadian Nationalism

  • The Quiet Revolution

  • The Rise of Parti Quebecois

  • Sovereignty-Association

  • Language

  • French-Canadian Ethnic Identity

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Canada’s Third Force

Visible Minorities


Aboriginal Peoples

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Stability and Change

  • Melting Pot vs Mosaic

  • Canadian Pluralism

  • Multiculturalism

  • Looking Beyond

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Shifting Patterns of Immigration

  • Uneven Development

  • Political Conflict

  • Changes in Western Europe

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The Resurgence of Ethnic Nationalism

  • Civic vs Ethnic Nationalism

  • Breakup of Yugoslovia

    Corporate Pluralism under Tito

    Dissolution of Yugoslav Federation

    Contemporary Conflict

    Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia

    The End of Ethnic Harmony

    Kosovo and the Expansion of the Yugoslav Conflict

  • Exploitation of Ethnicity

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The Endurance of Ethnic Conflict

  • Stimulants of Ethnic Conflict

    Inequalities in Power and Wealth

    Cultural Differences

    Physical Distinctions

    Status Inequality

  • Containment of Ethnic Conflict