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review 2. American Demography & Immigration. Nascent Immigration The Slave Trade South Southwest Old Immigration New Immigration Newest Immigration Current Immigration.

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review 2


American Demography & Immigration

  • Nascent Immigration

  • The Slave Trade South Southwest

  • Old Immigration

  • New Immigration

  • Newest Immigration

  • Current Immigration


Some Basic Concepts


Some Basic Concepts

4 Key Questions

  • What is the nature of inter-group relations in multiethnic societies?

  • How are the various ethnic groups ranked and what are consequences of that ranking system?

  • How does the dominant group maintain its place and how do subordinate groups attempt to change that?

  • What are the long-range outcomes of ethnic inter-relations?


Some Basic Concepts

Ethnic Groups

  • Unique cultural Traits

  • Sense of Community

  • Ethnocentrism

  • Ascribed Membership

  • Territoriality


Some Basic Concepts

  • As a Biological Notion

  • As a Social Construct

  • In the Ideology of Racism

Race


Ethnic Stratification

Dominant Groups

Political, Economic, and Cultural Dominance

Middleman Minorities

Minority Groups

Differential Treatment

Social Definition

Differential Power

Categorical Nature

Sociological and Numerical Meanings


Ethnic Stratification

  • Conquest

  • Annexation

  • Voluntary Immigration

  • Involuntary Immigration

Forms of Contact


Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Prejudice Stereotypes Social Distance

  • DiscriminationIndividual Institutional Structural


Assimilation and Pluralism

  • Manner of Entrance

  • Time of Entrance

  • Demographic Factors

  • Cultural Similarity

  • Visibility

Factors Affecting Assimilation


Assimilation and Pluralism

Assimilation

  • Cultural Assimilation

  • Structural Assimilation

  • Biological Assimilation

  • Psychological Assimilation


Assimilation and Pluralism

Types of Pluralism

  • Equalitarian PluralismAmerican Case Non-American Cases

  • Inequalitarian PluralismCompetitive Race Relations Internal Colonialism Annihilation or Expulsion


Assimilation and Pluralism

Typology of Multiethnic Societies

Colonial Societies

Corporate Pluralistic Societies

Assimilationist Societies

See Figure 4.1 and Table 4.2


Hispanic-Americans


Historical Context

  • Manner of Entry and Racial Status

  • Development

  • Mexican-Americans conquest/annexation voluntary immigration-economic push-pull

  • Puerto Ricans voluntary immigration- - economic push-pull and relative political ease

  • Cubans involuntary immigration-early political push voluntary immigration-economic push-pull


Demographics Today

  • Population-young, rapidly growing, continuing migration and high birth rate

  • Geography

  • Mexican-Americans-Southwest and dispersed

  • Puerto Ricans-New York +

  • Cubans-Miami, Florida +

  • Others-the same major metropolitan areas


Socioeconomic Status

  • Income and Wealth

  • Occupation

  • Education

  • Special Cuban Case-institutional completeness

  • Outlook


Political Power

  • Mexican-Americans increasingly influential

  • Puerto Ricans limited extent

  • Cubans dominant force

  • Outlook


African-Americans


Demography Today

  • Population-13% of America

  • Diversity-involuntary and voluntary immigrants

  • Geographical Patterns-urban

  • Economic Status

    Occupation-5.2 unemployment vs 10.8

    Education-89 vs 80 and 30 vs 17

  • Class or Race?

  • Societal Power

    Political Power-mixed and very local

    Economic Power-less than political


Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Formation of Ghettos-own preference or discrimination?

  • Residential Segregation-dominative vs aversive?

  • Changes in Racial Attitudes-surveys

  • Stereotypes and Social Distance-racial liberalism

  • Attitudes and Actions-ambivalence in action

  • Contrasting Views

    of Socioeconomic Gap-own shortcomings or discrimination?

    of Problems and Solutions-mopping up or deeply rooted?


Assimilation or Pluralism

  • Assimilation

    Cultural-reciprocal

    Structural-secondary only

    Assimilation Model-very slow, unstable family?

    Assimilation and Visibility

  • Inequalitarian Pluralistic Model

    -internal colonial model


Asian-Americans


Immigration and Settlement

  • First Wave

    Chinese

    Japanese

  • Second Wave

    Koreans

    Filipinos

    Vietnamese

    Asian Indians

    Others

  • Demographics Today


In the Class System

  • Socioeconomic Status

    Income

    Occupation

    Education

  • Ethnic and Class Factors in Upward Mobility

  • Political Power


Prejudice and Discrimination

  • The ‘Yellow Peril’

  • Japanese Internment

  • In the Modern Era

  • vs other Minorities

  • As Model Minority


Native Americans


Historical Context

  • as immigrants

  • as a conquered indigenous population

  • displacement and depopulation

  • American policy: economic-land cultural-assimilation political-control

  • Indian policy: tribal survival (maintenance of relations and distinct cultural orders) political autonomy


Native American Demographics

  • Population Growth Reservation Indians Urban Indians

  • Socioeconomic Status Economic Education Health


Comparative Diversity

Canada vs US


The Evolution of the English-French Schism

  • The English Conquest

  • Confederation

  • The New French-Canadian Nationalism

  • The Quiet Revolution

  • The Rise of Parti Quebecois

  • Sovereignty-Association

  • Language

  • French-Canadian Ethnic Identity


Canada’s Third Force

Visible Minorities

…and

Aboriginal Peoples


Stability and Change

  • Melting Pot vs Mosaic

  • Canadian Pluralism

  • Multiculturalism

  • Looking Beyond


Global Diversity


Shifting Patterns of Immigration

  • Uneven Development

  • Political Conflict

  • Changes in Western Europe


The Resurgence of Ethnic Nationalism

  • Civic vs Ethnic Nationalism

  • Breakup of Yugoslovia

    Corporate Pluralism under Tito

    Dissolution of Yugoslav Federation

    Contemporary Conflict

    Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia

    The End of Ethnic Harmony

    Kosovo and the Expansion of the Yugoslav Conflict

  • Exploitation of Ethnicity


The Endurance of Ethnic Conflict

  • Stimulants of Ethnic Conflict

    Inequalities in Power and Wealth

    Cultural Differences

    Physical Distinctions

    Status Inequality

  • Containment of Ethnic Conflict


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