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Prevention. Any organizational activity aimed at keeping unlawful behavior from occurring or keeping such behavior to a minimum and avoiding intervention Prevention in general Primary, secondary, tertiary. Difficulty of evaluating prevention. Correlational

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Prevention l.jpg
Prevention

  • Any organizational activity aimed at keeping unlawful behavior from occurring or keeping such behavior to a minimum and avoiding intervention

  • Prevention in general

  • Primary, secondary, tertiary


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Difficulty of evaluating prevention

  • Correlational

  • If nothing happens, was it because of prevention. Tiger prevention

  • Secular drift

  • Resistance of politicians, public, etc.


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Theories

  • Deterrence

  • Biological explanations (genetics, health care, diet)

  • Psychological characteristics: aggression, hyperactivity, impulsivity, intelligence, moral development


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Theories

  • Sociological

  • Differential association, social/self control

  • Ecological

  • Strain, opportunity, middle class measuring rod

  • Economics, relative deprivation


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Theories

  • Conflict


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Crime prevention study

  • University of Maryland

  • Rated studies on such aspects as

  • Control of other variables

  • Statistical power

  • Research design:

  • Correlations, temporal sequence, comparisons, random assignment and comparisons


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Study

  • Evaluation of history, chance factors, selection bias

  • Evaluated studies and examined results

  • What works, what doesn’t work, what’s promising


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What doesn’t work

  • Gun buyback programs

  • Community mobilization in high crime inner city areas

  • Home visits by police to couples after domestic violence

  • Individual and peer counseling of students


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What doesn’t work

  • DARE

  • Summer jobs for at-risk youths

  • School-based leisure time enrichment programs

  • Short term nonresidential training programs


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What doesn’t work

  • Neighborhood watch, esp. in high crime areas where voluntary participation needed

  • Arrests of juveniles for minor offenses (backfires)

  • Arrests of unemployed suspects for domestic assault


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What doesn’t work

  • Increased raids on drug markets

  • Storefront police officers

  • Correctional boot camps

  • Scared Straight

  • Shock sentences

  • Home detention and EM for low-risk offenders


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What doesn’t work

  • ISP

  • General counseling of offenders

  • Residential programs for juvenile offenders in rural settings (outward bound, etc)


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What works

  • Frequent home visits to infants

  • Preschool and weekly home visits by teachers to children under 5

  • Family therapy and parent training about delinquent and at-risk preadolescents


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What works

  • Clarifying and communicating norms about behavior through rules and schoolwide initiatives (such as antibullying campaigns) in schools

  • Life Skills Training programs, teaching such skills to youths as stress management, problem-solving, self-control


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What works

  • Training in thinking skills to high-risk youths

  • Ex-offender job training for old males

  • Nuisance abatement (threatening civil action against landlords for not addressing drug dealing and crime on premises)


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What works

  • Extra police patrols in high crime hot spots

  • Repeat offender units

  • Arresting domestic abusers if they are employed

  • Incarceration of repeat offenders who will continue to commit crimes


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What works

  • Rehabilitation programs for offenders using treatments appropriate to their risk factors

  • Therapeutic community programs in prisons


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What’s promising

  • Gang offender monitoring

  • Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America

  • Community based afterschool recreation programs

  • Battered women’s shelters seems to work if the women take further steps

  • School within schools


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What’s promising

  • Job Corps

  • Prison-based vocational education programs in the federal prisons

  • Dispersing inner-city public housing residents to scattered suburban public housing (reduced crime, high school dropout and parental unemployment


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What’s promising

  • Enterprise zones with tax-break incentives in areas of high unemployment


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What’s promising: deterrence

  • 2nd clerk in already robbed convenience stores

  • Redesigning layout of retail stores to reduce shoplifting

  • Training and management of bar staff reduces tavern violence and accidents

  • Metal detectors in schools reduce weapon carrying (although not assaults)


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What’s promising

  • Airport metal detectors

  • Sky marshals

  • Street closures, barricades and rerouting

  • Target hardening

  • Problem-solving analysis addressed to the specific crime situation


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What’s promising

  • Arrests for carrying unauthorized concealed weapons

  • Community policing reduces community perceptions of crime severity

  • Polite Field interrogations of suspicious persons

  • Higher numbers of police officers (some cities)


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What’s promising

  • Drug courts

  • Drug treatment in jails followed by urine testing in the community

  • Intensive supervision and aftercare of minor juvenile offenses (runaways, truants) reduced future offending for first time offenders (but not multiple)


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What’s promising

  • Intensive supervision and aftercare of serious juvenile offenders

  • Fines

  • Day fines for technical violations


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