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Marxism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ideology: definitions Webster--3a “A systematic scheme or coordinated body of ideas or concepts esp. about human life or culture” Webster--3c(1) “The integrated assertions, theories, and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.” Ozhegov--”A system of views and ideas, a worldview.”

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Ideology: definitions

  • Webster--3a “A systematic scheme or coordinated body of ideas or concepts esp. about human life or culture”

  • Webster--3c(1) “The integrated assertions, theories, and aims that constitute a sociopolitical program.”

  • Ozhegov--”A system of views and ideas, a worldview.”


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Topics of Discussion

  • American ideology

  • Russian ideology

  • Soviet ideology: Marxism-Leninism

  • The Russian Revolutions


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American Ideology

  • Individual rights

  • Democracy: majority rule

  • Capitalism: profit


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Russian Ideology

  • Divine right: the tsar is the link between Russia and God

  • Russian Orthodoxy is the only true religion

  • All power flows downward from tsar to people: absolute monarchy

  • Russia’s great destiny depends on this divine link


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Individual

Freedom

Privacy

Materialistic

Pragmatic

Inequality

Collective

Control

Community

Idealistic

Ideological

Equality

Comparative Poles


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Soviet Ideology: Marxism

  • Communist Manifesto published by Marx and Engels, 1848

    • Social injustice of capitalism

    • Exploitation of the proletariat: workers produce value

    • Bourgeois capitalists: own means of production but do no work

    • Workers of the world, unite!


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Marxist Premises

  • All history is the history of class struggles

  • Economic relations are the basis of all other social relationships

  • Class consciousness is determined

  • Religion is an “opiate”: atheism

  • Dialectical materialism


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Dialectical materialism

  • Hegel’s historical teleology + Darwin’s natural selection

  • Thesis--Antithesis--Synthesis

  • Quantitative change leads to qualitative change

  • Class struggle inevitably leads to revolutionary overthrow of capitalism

  • Withering away of the state


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Communist Party

  • Paris Commune: Revolution of 1848

  • Vanguard of the proletariat

    • Elite, small group

    • Conscious, trained Marxists

    • Lead, educate illiterate workers, bring them to revolutionary consciousness


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Communist Platform

  • Abolition of land ownership

  • Heavy graduated income tax

  • Abolition of right of inheritance

  • Centralization of banking, communication, transportation

  • State control of more enterprises

  • Equal liability of all to work

  • Free public education for all children


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Soviet Ideology: Leninism

  • Social Democratic Party

  • Mensheviks (“minority”)

    • Orthodox Marxists

    • Russia must become industrialized, develop a proletariat

    • Then have revolution

  • Bolsheviks (“majority”): Lenin

    • Russia can skip stages

    • Go directly for revolution


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Russian Revolutions

  • 1905--January 9 (Bloody Sunday)

    • Major social upheavals

    • Russo-Japanese War

    • Creation of first Duma

  • February Revolution (bourgeois), 1917

    • Abdication of the tsar (March)

    • Provisional Government (Kerensky)

    • Continued with war effort


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October Revolution

  • Lenin returns from exile in April, 1917

    • April Theses:

      • Withdraw from war

      • Power to the soviets of workers and soldiers

      • Land to the peasants

  • Oct. 25 O.S.--Nov. 7 N.S.

  • Bolsheviks take power in Petrograd


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