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IPE 4. Industrial Revolution. Application of machinery to production late 1700s spinning jenny (mule) New energy sources (1790 steam power) Division of labor – factories, mechanized production replaced putting out system

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Industrial revolution l.jpg
Industrial Revolution

  • Application of machinery to production

    late 1700s spinning jenny (mule)

  • New energy sources (1790 steam power)

  • Division of labor – factories,

  • mechanized production replaced putting out system

  • female factory workers (docile),1838 – 23% of factory workers in UK men

  • Transport Revolution - iron and coal power at the end of 19th century


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URBANIZATION

  • New metropolitan cities emerged

  • Eric Hobsbawm

  • Industrial population divided

  • Capitalist – profit

  • Workers – wages

  • Division of labor

    Raw cotton from Caribbean, by 1807 from USA, Native Americans, and slave labor from Africa to plantations of Southern


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  • Indian cotton textile industry destroyed

  • Raw cotton from India shipped to Britain

  • Mechanized cotton production in Britain

  • Factory produced cotton sold at higher wages to Indian population

  • Transport revolution railroads – 1880s

  • Iron and coal


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Why Britain?

  • European knowledge and technology

    Scientific revolution, Enlightenment, rationality, secular, individual, proof

  • Liberal state, use of force (Polanyi)

    1834 Reform of Poor Laws Act

    no charity, work in cities in factories

    Adam Smith (let it be,let it pass)

    working day extended 15 hours, child labor

    Critique by Karl Marx 1848

  • role in international economy- naval power


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CONTEXT

  • What did others do?

  • Global Famines in last ¼ of 19th century

  • 1876-79; 1889-91; 1896-1902, ocean currents, lack of rain, crop failures, 30-50 million people in China, India and Brazil died

  • British in India no policy , belief in free market

  • Food exported to UK (higher prices)


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  • France revolution and Napoleonic war

  • Germany (Frederick List, protection of infant industries

  • USA civil war – arms manufacturing 1870s and 1880s

  • Japan Meiji Restoration 1868 state led industrialization

    Thomas Glover, Mistubishi


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Slave Trade and Imperialism

  • Not specific to Africa, 14th century Europe imported Slavs and Greeks , Scotland, miners and saltpan workers enslaved in 17 and 18th centuries

  • European and Muslims enslaved each other

  • Romans and Greeks

  • In Africa –gold main attraction, pepper, ivory, timber, rubber,

  • Capture and delivery of slaves – Africa Europeans – ocean transport

  • Slave labor to Americas 1450-1900 9 -13 million Africans transported to Americas


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  • Triangular Trade (textiles, guns in exchange for slaves – plantations, mines - silver, cotton, sugar exported at great profit to Europe

  • Bristol and Liverpool major slaving ports

  • King Leopold (Belgium)

  • Adam Hochschild King Leopold’s Ghost

  • Devastation of the Congo (rubber)

  • Joseph Conrad The Heart of Darkness

  • Apocalypse Now


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Imperialism plantations, mines - silver, cotton, sugar exported at great profit to Europe

  • Began in 1400s. By 1800s relinquish control of Americas – new colonies in Africa, Algeria, India and Vietnam,

  • 1878-1913 European control 1/6th of world’s surface

  • Asia – China,

  • Holland – Indonesia

  • Portugal – Africa

  • France

  • N and W Africa Indochina

  • Britain – India and S Africa

  • Japan - Asia– Manchuria

    Scramble for Africa, Spheres of Influence in China


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  • Gold Standard 1875-1914 plantations, mines - silver, cotton, sugar exported at great profit to Europe

  • Curr3cny worth in gold

  • Free movement of gold

  • Currencies relative value in relation to gold

  • Theory of Competitive Advantage


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