INTRODUCTION TO LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS. Osvaldo Jordan-Ramos Fall 2009. The Physical Landscape. Two entirely different continents precariously linked by Central America and the Caribbean. The Andes Mountains separate the dry Pacific from the humid Atlantic.
Population Collapse (=GENOCIDE)
European and African Colonization
Population Recovery, and Genetic and Cultural Change
In the 1490s, the Spanish expedition of Christopher Columbus began the Conquest of the Caribbean.
Spanish adventurers were driven mainly by the sake of Gold – El Dorado and La Fuente de la Juventud.
They clashed with two major imperial states – The Aztecs (1519) and the Inkas (1532)
Why were not the Spanish completely obliterated by these imperial armies?
1494. Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal. Dividing Line in the 46 37’.
1512. The Laws of Burgos protected the “Indians” from mistreatment, yet they were exploited through two different institutions:
Encomienda - The assignment of a group of natives to a Spanish colonist.
Repartimiento - Requiring the Indian population to provide free labor.
1542. The New Laws sought to eliminate the encomiendas, yet they were opposed by the Spanish colonists.
The New Laws accelerated the massive importation of African slaves, yet Indian labor still continued.
The Spanish developed a complex system of castas that would eventually disappear through mestizaje and blanqueamiento.
To administer the large empire, the Crown created two independent viceroyalties: New Spain (Mexico) and Lima (Peru).
Portugal maintained the Brazilian colonies; and The British, the Dutch and the French dominated parts of North America and the Caribbean.
Through the system of the Spanish Galeones, trade was controlled exclusively by the State and wealth was based on the accumulation of minerals(=MERCANTILISM).
Pirates of the Caribbean (and of the Pacific). The Challenge of England, France, and The Netherlands to Spanish and Portuguese Hegemony.
Catholic Missions to the Unconquered Territories, like Amazonia, Chaco, and Florida.
1701-1714. War of Spanish Succession. Defeat of the Habsburg Royal Line and Enthronement of the Bourbon Dynasty (ENLIGHTENMENT).
They sought to improve colonial administration, introducing enlightened policies, and bolstering the power of the Crown in the colonies.
They were also trying to introduce the Spanish Empire in to the Modern Era of the Industrial Revolution.
1776. American Revolution. Independence of the British Colonies in North America.
1780. Rebellion of Tupac Amaru in Peru.
1781. Comunero Revolt in New Granada (present-day Colombia).
1789. The French Revolution destabilized both the Spanish and Portuguese Monarchies.
1804. The Haitian Revolution. Second Independent Republic in The Americas.
1810-1813. Hidalgo and Morelos Rebellion in Mexico.
1811. Venezuelan War of Independence. Simon Bolivar, Libertador de Las Americas.
1813. Argentinean War of Independence. Jose de San Martin.
1821. Peruvian and Mexican Conservative Independence Movements.