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Introduction to Agriculture Animal Diseases and Parasites Animal Diseases and Parasites External and Internal Parasites The immune system Disease prevention programs Types of disease -bacterial diseases -viral diseases -antibiotics -vaccines

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Introduction to Agriculture

Animal Diseases and Parasites


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Animal Diseases and Parasites

  • External and Internal Parasites

  • The immune system

  • Disease prevention programs

  • Types of disease

    -bacterial diseases

    -viral diseases

    -antibiotics

    -vaccines

    -history of vaccinations and Anti-biotics

    -Genetic diseases

    -Nutritional diseases

  • BSE “Mad Cow Disease”



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Symptoms of Parasitic Infestation

  • Parasites to the stomach and intestines cause:

  • Anemia

  • Scouring

  • Depression

  • Death


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Description of Parasitic Infestation

  • Roundworms:

  • Found in the digestive system

  • Most important parasites from an economic standpoint

  • Mostly in stomach and intestines


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Stomach Worm

  • Several species of stomach worm

  • Twisted stomach worms and brown stomach worms are the most important.

  • Found in all classes of livestock

  • Most common in cattle, sheep and horses.

  • Penetrates the stomach lining

  • Causes severe damage


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Strongyles

  • Several species

  • Attack all species

  • Greater affect on young

  • Blood sucking parasites that attach to the lining of the intestines


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Ascarids

  • Parasites of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs

  • Affects young mostly

  • The larvae burrow into the wall of the intestines and migrate through the liver, heart, and finally the lungs


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Description of external parasites

  • Mites and mange

  • Mites are a live parasite

  • Mange is a live fungus



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The healthy body against a world of disease

  • The body has two “lines” of defense against disease organisms


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The first line of defense includes:

  • SKIN - which is covered by hair, feathers, etc., and is thick and able to sweat in some species (others must pant)

  • MUCOUS MEMBRANES - which are the sticky, protective coating that trap pathogens from further penetration (ex: in the nose and the tearing that washes pathogens out of the eyes)


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  • GUT - which is difficult for pathogens to pass through because of acids produced by digestive processes

  • CELL WALL - which is often mucus coated and may have cilia to protect the cell

  • COUGHING - which rids the body of disease organisms which may have been swallowed and the mucus they may be trapped in

  • FLUSHING EFFECT OF URINATION - which washes pathogens out


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The second line of defense includes:

  • WHITE BLOOD CELLS - which are produced by the body to help fight infection

  • LYMPHATIC SYSTEM - which filters pathogens and other undesirables out of the body’s lymphatic system

  • LIVER - which filters blood and detoxifies poisons

  • ANTIBODIES - which are substances produced by the body to fight off pathogens


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Once pathogens have breached the body’s line of defense, they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues.

Disease activity results in changes in the tissues that are invaded.


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Typical signs of infections are: they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues.

  • Redness due to increased blood flow to the injured area

  • swelling

  • localized heat in the area of the injury

  • increased body temperature

  • pain resulting from excessive pressure on tissues due to swelling


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The speed at which a disease attacks and animal is termed: they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues.

  • ACUTE - relatively sudden appearance of symptoms (within 24 hours)

  • CHRONIC - that which develops more slowly, lingers, and will frequently reappear


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OVERWORK they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues.

EXPOSUREto:

cold

heat

rain

snow

sun

humidity

other animals

parasites

LONG SHIPMENTS

WEANING

INJURY

MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

ACCESS TO STAGNANT WATER

SPOILED FEEDS

POISONOUS PLANTS

The conditions could to make an animal become ill are:


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Diseases can be spread by: they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues.

  • DIRECT CONTACT- animals rubbing against each other (ringworm), sexual contact (venereal infections), or by mucus (respiratory diseases)

  • CONTACT WITH NON-LIVING OBJECTS- fence posts, trucks, feeders, needles, etc.

  • INFECTION FROM SOIL- tetanus, blackleg

  • INFECTION FROM FOOD OR WATER- influenza (viral infections)


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  • AIRBORNE INFECTION they generally multiply and attach, destroying body tissues. - coughing and sneezing of infected animals on each other

  • INFECTION FROM BLOOD SUCKERS- such as flies and mosquitoes carrying such diseases as encephalitis

  • INFECTIONS FROM ORGANISMS- normally in an animals body. However, they only become dangerous when the animal’s defenses are weakened by some health or stress-related problem


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Be alert for signs of disease and conditions which can cause stress and strain

provide clean, disinfected quarters, free from draft

provide adequate ventilation an plenty of sunlight

Good management will do much to help animals resist disease:


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provide proper drainage of holding areas, barns, freestalls, etc. - to help maintain the dries area possible

protect from excessive sun, wind, and rain, without over crowding

practice rigid sanitation and manure removal procedures


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  • Provide a well balanced diet etc. - to help maintain the dries area possible

  • get accurate diagnosis of health problems IMMEDIATELY so that treatment can be provided

  • avoid unnecessary stress and strain

  • buy disease free stock from healthy herds and flocks


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  • Isolate new animals for a period of time - be sure that they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • follow a set vaccination program

  • be cautious of visitors from other operations as they may carry disease pathogens on shoes and clothing

  • dispose of dead animals immediately


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Animal Diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

Adapted from Georgia AgEd


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Disease they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Broad definition – not being at ease or uncomfortable

  • Producers have a vested interest to keep their animals healthy


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Healthy Animals they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Grow faster and produce more profit for their owners

  • Some diseases are mild, others may be severe and cause rapid death


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Sick animals they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Usually display outward signs of illness

  • Animal may be droopy, go off feed and water, be restless, have a dull haircoat


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Infectious diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Caused by microorganisms that invade the animal’s body

  • Usually contagious diseases that the animal can pass to another animal


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Bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Live in a wide range of conditions

  • Live on and in the bodies of all animals

  • More numerous than the cells of the body


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Bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Many are beneficial

  • Those living in the stomachs of ruminant animals aid in digestion


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Bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Useful in production of foods such as cheese and sauerkraut

  • Many can be harmful

  • Invade the cells of an animal’s body


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Parasitic bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • May harm the animal by feeding off the body cells or secreting a material known as a toxin


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Toxin they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Substance that causes harm to an organism

  • A poison


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Harmful bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • When large numbers invade, the animal becomes ill

  • Type and form of the illness depends on the type of bacteria that invades the animal


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Cocci they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Round spherical shaped bacteria

  • Some forms of pneumonia and strep are caused by this bacteria


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Bacillus they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Rod shaped

  • Single, pairs, or arranged in chains

  • Cause some serious diseases in animals


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Bacillus they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Anthrax

  • Tetanus

  • Blackleg

  • Intestinal coliform

  • Salmonella and tuberculosis


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Spirilla they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Shaped like spirals or corkscrews

  • Very motile

  • Require moist atmosphere to live


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Spirilla they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Live very well in the reproductive tracts of animals

  • Leptospirosis

  • Vibrosis and spirochetosis


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Most bacteria they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Can be controlled by the use of antibiotics

  • Penicillin was one of the first

  • Produced from extracts of molds


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Penicillin they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Many forms are now produced

  • Very effective against bacterial infection.


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Viruses they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Very tiny particle of matter composed of a core of nucleic acid and a covering of protein that protects the virus


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Viruses they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Have characteristics of both living and nonliving material

  • Are on the borderline between living and non living


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Viruses they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Made up of some of the material found in cells but are not cells because they do not have a nucleus or other cell parts.


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Viruses they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Do not grow and cannot reproduce outside a living cell

  • Once inside a living cell, virus reproduces using energy and materials in the invaded cell


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Viruses they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Harm cells by causing them to burst during reproduction

  • And by using material that the cell needs to function properly


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Virus they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Viral diseases cause the animal to be sick by preventing certain cells in the body from functioning properly


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Virus they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • More difficult to treat than bacterial diseases

  • Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections


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Viral diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Foot and mouth disease

  • Influenza

  • Hog cholera

  • Pseudorabies


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Viral diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Best means of dealing with them is prevention


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Protozoa they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Microorganism that causes disease

  • Single celled organisms that are often parasitic


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Protozoa they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Cause harm by feeding on cells or producing toxins

  • African sleeping sickness

  • Anaplasmosis


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Protozoa they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Coccidiosis

  • One of the most costly poultry diseases

  • Caused diarrhea and weight loss


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Protozoa they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Most can be controlled by drugs


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The immune system they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Several lines of defense in fighting disease

  • Physical barriers that keep pathogens out


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The immune system they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Nostrils are lined with hairs that attract particles that harbor germs before they can enter the body


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The immune system they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Mucous membranes secrete viscous water substance that traps and destroys bacteria and viruses


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The immune system they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Digestive and respiratory systems – greatest avenue for entry

  • Some disease germs can live in the soil for many years


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Soil borne disease they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Animals come into contact with the ground when they graze

  • Many pathogens are breathed in by livestock


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Germs they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Swallowed by animals are destroyed by digestive enzymes

  • Inhaled germs are trapped in mucous membranes of respiratory tract


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2 they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flocknd line of defense

  • Blood cells

  • White and Red

  • Red – carry oxygen and other nutrients to other body cells


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White Blood Cells they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Are produced in the bone marrow

  • Circulate throughout the body to get rid of worn out cells


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Phagocytes they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • White blood cells that intercept and destroy pathogens

  • Also migrate to certain organs and remain there to intercept pathogens


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White Blood Cells they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Circulate through other body fluids and the mucous membranes


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Phagocytes they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Release chemicals that can induce the production of more white blood cells to help fight disease


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Phagocytes they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • An elevated WBC count indicated that there are disease organisms present in the animal’s body and a large number of phagocytes have been produced to combat them


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Lymphocytes they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Lymph glands that produce certain WBC’s

  • These cells react to foreign substances by releasing chemicals that kill the pathogen or inactivate the foreign substance


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Antigens they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Substances that cause the release of chemicals

  • May be viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other substances


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Antibodies they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • The chemicals released by the lymphocytes


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2 they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flocknd Immune Response

  • Lymphocytes become memory cell and are ready to release the antibody if the antigen enters the body at a later time


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2 they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flocknd Immune Response

  • Response occurs much more quickly

  • Lasts longer than primary response


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Immunity they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Means than an animal is protected from catching a certain disease

  • Animal’s body is capable of producing enough antibodies fast enough to neutralize the disease


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Immunity they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Active or passive

  • Active –animal is more or less permanently immune

  • Passive – animal is only temporarily immune


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Immunity they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Animals are born with some immunity

  • Colostrum is rich in antibodies

  • Serve the new animal until its own immune system can take over


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Immunity they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • As the animal is exposed to more antigens, antibodies build up within the animal.

  • Naturally acquired active immunity results from the animal actually contracting the disease and recovering


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Artificial Active they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Induced by injecting antigens into the animal

  • Causes phagocytes to react without making the animal seriously ill


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Edward Jenner they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Late 1700’s

  • Began vaccination process

  • Smallpox and cow pox

  • Collected material from sores of people with cowpox


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Edward Jenner they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Injected healthy people with material

  • Became mildly ill with cow pox

  • Then were immune


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Louis Pasteur they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Developed several vaccines following Jenner’s lead


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Vaccines they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Live

  • Killed or weakened strain

  • Both stimulate production of antibodies

  • Killed – less dangerous when compared to live vaccine


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Noninfectious Disease they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Not contagious

  • Genetic diseases

  • Caused by defects in the genes

  • Problem or disease can be passed from parent to offspring


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Genetic Diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Cannot be spread through contact with other animals

  • Control of genetic diseases, using good selection practices

  • Avoid breeding animals that are known to have genetic defects in their line


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Nutritional Diseases they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Milk fever in dairy cattle

  • Cows lie down and are unable to stand

  • Insufficient amount of Ca in the bloodstream


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Milk fever they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Usually cured by injection of Ca salts

  • Effects are immediate and dramatic


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Overeating they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Founder – horses, cattle and sheep

  • Eat too much grain

  • Causes feet to become inflamed and hooves to grow upward and outward


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Poisoning they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Moldy feed can contain toxins

  • Aflatoxins and ergot – fungi that grow on grains

  • Grazing on poisonous plants


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Disease prevention they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Vaccination

  • Humans can carry disease from one farm to another

  • Many farms require plastic boots be worn over the shoes of visitors


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Quarantine they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Isolation of newly purchased animals

  • Government regulates quarantine for animals coming into the US


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Quarantine they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • Many states have quarantine periods or require health papers for animals crossing state lines

  • Animals tested positive for Brucellosis (Bangs) are branded and sent to slaughter.


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Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

Billy Moss, Area Livestock Teacher. North Region Agricultural Education. Georgia,

ebruary 2004


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About the U.S. Case they are healthy before introducing them to your herd or flock

  • The U.S. case confirmed in Washington on Dec. 23 2003, was a 6 ½ year old Holstein cow that was non-ambulatory at the time.

  • The farm has been quarantined and information has been received that indicates the infected cow was of Canadian origin.


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As of December 31, 2004, the following rules will be implemented in the U.S.:

  • No “downer” (non-ambulatory ) animals will be processed at slaughter facilities anywhere in the country. Your options for them are: bury, burn, or compost.

  • Any animal at slaughter showing symptoms of BSE will not be allowed into the food chain until a negative BSE test has been confirmed.


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As of December 31, 2004, the following rules will be implemented in the U.S.:

  • Specified Risk Materials (skulls, eyes, nervous tissues, etc.) of cattle greater than 30 months of age will not be allowed in beef products intended for human consumption.

  • “Air Injection” stunning at slaughter plants will be prohibited. This process has already been largely replaced by captive bolt stunning.


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As of December 31, 2004, the following rules will be implemented in the U.S.:

  • No mechanical separation allowed for beef products intended for human consumption. Advanced Meat Recovery (AMR) is a method of mechanically stripping meat from bone that was developed in 1994.

  • As a result of the BSE case found in Washington state, a HIGH priority is being placed on the development of a National Animal Identification Program.


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Facts About BSE implemented in the U.S.:

  • The BSE agent is NOT found in cuts of beef, such as steaks and roasts.

  • The pryon protein that causes BSE is found in the Central Nervous Tissues, such as the brain and spinal cord, of the animal.

  • BSE has not been proven to be a genetic disease.


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Facts About BSE (cont’d) implemented in the U.S.:

  • BSE is transmitted by the ingestion of contaminated feedstuffs. A preponderance of evidence suggests that the disease is spread by the “oral consumption of rendered animal” ( usually consumed as a protein source). The most critical animal health control measure - a ban on feeding animal ruminant – derived meat & bone meal supplements to cattle – has been in place in this country since 1997.


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Facts about BSE (cont’d) implemented in the U.S.:

  • The U.S. banned imports of cattle and bovine products from countries with BSE beginning in 1989.

  • The U.S. began a surveillance program for BSE in 1990 and was the first country without the disease within its borders to test cattle for the disease. The surveillance system targets all cattle with any signs of neurological disorder as well as those over 30 months of age that are non-ambulatory.


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Facts about BSE (con’t) implemented in the U.S.:

  • USDA has recently placed a ban on feeding poultry litter to beef cattle. The concern is that poultry feed, which contains meat and bone meal (which is a cheap source of protein), could provide BSE infection in beef cattle.


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What have we learned as a result of this singular case of BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • The value of beef exports in this country amounts to 10% of the total beef produced. It is an important 10%. In addition to the high quality cuts of beef we ship out of country, we also export livers, short ribs, tongues, etc. for more than they are worth here, so we derive extra value from those premium products, thus creating a valuable niche market for items that would be of lesser value in the states.


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What have we learned as a result of this singular case of BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • As a country, we import mostly 86-90% lean beef product from countries such as Australia and New Zealand. These imports go primarily to fast food outlets.

  • There is an additional 45 million pouds of beef/week extra when we can’t export. It will have to be ground up for burger instead of sold at a premium.


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What have we learned as a result of this singular case of BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • There is a complex interaction between imports and exports in our industry.

  • There needs to be established basic principles of trade among nations based on sound science.

  • The one advantage we do have is that the market place is very current, but with every passing day that our export market remains closed, time is against us as the cattle on feed add weight to the final carcass value.


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What have we learned as a result of this singular case of BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • We must remain consumer confident in the U.S. One consistent message – the ultimate message – that we as producers and knowledgeable consumers must promote is that BEEF IS SAFE!


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What have we learned as a result of this singular case of BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • An independent authority hired by the NCBA to survey the general public about BSE revealed the following:

    • 1. Consumer awareness of BSE is at an all-time high. 96% of America has recently heard about BSE.

    • 2. Consumer confidence levels remain virtually unchanged from pre-December 23. 89% of the general public believes that beef is safe, with 75 % eating the same amount of beef as before December 23.


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Mandatory Animal ID BSE being discovered in the U.S.?

  • Mandatory Premise and Animal ID is Coming! Current discussion holds that a Premise ID will first be required, identifying each place of production. Individual Animal ID would soon follow.


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How should individual producers prepare for Mandatory Animal ID?

  • Document the origin of every animal on your place. You can use the following to get started:

    • 1.) Bills of Sale – If you run stockers or background, keep as many records of your purchase as you can.

    • 2.) Record Books – If you are a cow/calf operator, ID everything! Start simple – write down descriptions of each cow and eartag them. Record if the animal was home raised or purchased. If purchased, record where you bought her. With each calf crop, write down birthing dates and descriptions.


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How should individual producers prepare for Mandatory Animal ID?

  • Document the origin of every animal on your place. You can use the following to get started:

    • 3.) Vet and Feed Records – buy an 88 cent notebook and write down any pertinent information. Record the serial and batch numbers on any vaccine you administer, as well as the date and what group of cattle received it.

    • 4) Any others items you feel are inportant to tracking the animals in your operation.


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How should individual producers prepare for Mandatory Animal ID?

  • ID all animals. Start with eartags. A permanent tattoo in the ear would be a wise investment.

  • Develop an on-farm record keeping system.

  • Get as much information as possible in regard to future purchases.


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How should individual producers prepare for Mandatory Animal ID?

  • Expect to have to provide information to verify origin of cattle at all future sales.

  • Verification may have to be done by a 3rd party at some point.

  • Use electronic ID and market cattle within a system where you will receive production data to support management changes.


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Sources of Information ID?

  • www.BSE.org

  • www.USDA.org

  • Moser Ranch sale catalog

  • Newspaper and magazine articles


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Mad Cow Disease ID?

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

June 2002


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Mad Cow Disease ID?

  • Scientific Name: Bovine Spongiform Encepalopathy

  • It is found on any type of animal that is cloven hoofed such as: pigs, sheep, and cattle

  • Sheep: Scrapie Spongiform Encepalopathy.

  • There is a Humans form: Creutzfeldt-Jakobs Disease


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Cause: ID?

  • Feeding cattle animal bi-products such as meat-n-bone mill that has an infected prion in it.

  • Prion-an infected cell with no nucleus that gets in an animals brain and destroys it by eating away at the brain causing small holes. It doesn’t have any lifelike functions


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Symptoms: ID?

  • Loss of balance

  • Staggering

  • Loss of appetite

  • Animals tend to become aggressive

  • Foaming at the mouth


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Cures: ID?

  • Don’t feed cattle animal bi-products

  • Watch to make sure you are feeding your animals safe feeds

  • Always vaccinate cattle properly


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Preventions: ID?

  • USDA requires all imported meat to be inspected

  • US will not import cattle from Britian

  • Animals suspected of the disease are quarantined


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Effects On the U.S. ID?

  • caused great worries for many beef consumers

  • caused cattle ranchers to take many precautionary steps

  • Although this disease has been found in the Eastern world, it has not been known to be in the US, and chances are it never will because the US has so many safety standards.


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Working Bibliography ID?

  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy. 2001. Health and Human Services Dept.

  • Rampton, Sheldon Mad Cow USA. Monroe: Common Courage Press, 1997.

  • Straiton, Eddie. Cattle Ailments. Ramsbury: The Crowood Press, 1997.


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Conclusion ID?

  • PowerPoint modified from Glen Rose FFA and Georgia Ag Ed.


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