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Institutional Repositories, What, Why and How Peter Hessels, Advisor Digital Information Services In this presentation… About KIT and me Why set them up? Why do we publish? What are ‘Institutional Repositories’? How can they be set up? Mission and goals

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Institutional Repositories, What, Why and How

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Institutional Repositories, What, Why and How

Peter Hessels, Advisor Digital Information Services


In this presentation…

  • About KIT and me

  • Why set them up? Why do we publish?

  • What are ‘Institutional Repositories’?

  • How can they be set up?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Mission and goals

  • Independent centre of knowledge and expertise in the areas of international and intercultural cooperation

  • Working on:

  • sustainable development and poverty alleviation

  • cultural preservation and exchange

  • stimulating interest in and support for these issues in the Netherlands

  • Through research, education, advice and information

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


KIT works in 6 key areas

  • Economic development

  • Health care and research

  • Social and institutional development

  • Cultural preservation and exchange

  • Intercultural management and communication

  • Information, documentation and publications

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Economic development

  • Examples:

  • Rural Development Programmes (Benin, Haiti, Turkey)

  • Providing small farmers and agricultural producers with advice on market access (India, Bolivia)

  • Boosting agricultural research (Ethiopia, Mali, Tanzania)

  • Encouraging female entrepreneur-ship (Bhutan, Costa Rica, Suriname)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Health sector issues and biomedical research

  • Examples:

  • Developing affordable tests for tropical diseases: TB, malaria, leprosy etc.

  • Improving the quality of medical services and the health sector infrastructure in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe

  • Master's in Public Health and courses in health and development

  • HIV/AIDS programmes

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Social and institutional development

  • Examples:

  • Strengthening women's participation in governance (South Asia, Southern Africa)

  • Monitoring and evaluation (for WHO, DFID, DGIS and other government bodies – Burkina Faso, Cape Verde)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Cultural preservation and exchange

  • Examples:

  • Safeguarding, preserving and presenting cultural and colonial heritage

  • Podium for world music, dance, theatre and film. Around 175 performances and 30,000 visitors each year

  • 10 exhibitions each year with approximately 130,000 visitors to the museum

  • Providing advice and training to museums in developing countries (Yemen, Kenya, Zanzibar)

  • International cultural projects (Iran, South Africa, India/Suriname)

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Intercultural management and communication

  • Examples:

  • Training and coaching for companies operating in the international arena

  • Integrated training in both culture and language for expats and impats

  • Diversity management in companies

  • Guidance and support during mergers and takeovers

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Information, documentation and publications

  • Examples:

  • Providing information to policymakers, scientists and journalists: 5,000 visitors and 25,000 users annually

  • Providing advice and training on how to build information systems (Mozambique, Ghana)

  • Publishing books on international cooperation and culture: between 75-100books published annually

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Knowledge centre

  • KIT: multidisciplinary knowledge centre geared towards:

  • Knowledge sharing

  • Capacity development

  • Stimulating cooperation

  • Acting as a meeting place and forum for discussion

  • Active in more than 60 countries

  • Broad and varied composition of staff

  • Contacts with like-minded organizations

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Strategy

  • Independent research

  • Long and extensive practical experience

  • International networks

  • Partners and sponsors:

    • government bodies

    • (international) business sector

    • multilateral organisations (UN, EU, World Bank)

    • civil society organisations

    • scientific institutes

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Finance

  • KIT: not-for-profit organization

  • Income comes from:

  • Private assets

  • Project-funding by government bodies and international organizations, development organizations and the private sector

  • Contractual agreements with the Netherlands government

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


KIT’s approach to cooperation

  • Complementarity between the partners involved

  • Integrated approach

  • Success depends on:

  • Respect

  • Mutual understanding of each other’s

  • interests and differences

  • Appreciation of culture and history

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are institutional repositories

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Back to basis question

  • Why do we publish?

  • Authors give away their content and want to achieve impact, not necessarily income

  • Recognition that leads to other benefits like funding

  • Want to disseminate research widely

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


African Journals Online

  • Mainly due to difficulties accessing them, African-published research papers have been under-utilised, under-valued and under-cited in the international and African research arenas...

  • Valuable information has not reached the people who need it…

  • At the same time as online academic resources from the developed Global North are made available in Africa (such as HINARI, AGORA and OARE), there needs to be corresponding online availability of information from Africa.

  • African countries need to collectively play a greater role in the global online scholarly environment. Africa also needs access to its own scholarly publications.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Why

  • By contributing to harvesters, your institution:

  • provide social benefit to the community by making their discoverable from multiple locations

  • provide multiple access points to your resources

  • contribute to the national information infrastructure

  • expose content to the international education and training community

  • support the open access idea of knowledge sharing

  • encourage and support interoperability of sectors, systems and resources

  • benefit by value-added services, such as RSS feeds that can be delivered back to organisations.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Case for Institutional Repositories

  • Structural problems with scholarly publishing

  • ‘Impact barriers’

    • authors give away their content and want to achieve impact not income

    • want to disseminate research widely

    • but publishers want to restrict circulation based on subscriptions

  • ‘Access barriers’

    • researchers want easy access to the literature

    • but most researchers do not have easy access to most of the literature

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Benefits for the researcher

  • Wide dissemination

    • papers more visible

    • cited more

  • Rapid dissemination

  • Ease of access

  • Cross-searchable

  • Value added services

    • hit counts on papers

    • personalised publications lists

    • citation analyses

lowering impact barriers

lowering access barriers

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Other benefits

  • For the institution

    • raising profile and prestige of institution

    • managing institutional information assets

    • accreditation / performance management

    • long-term cost savings

  • For the research community

    • ‘frees up’ the communication process

    • avoids unnecessary duplication

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What are Institutional Repositories

  • Institutional:linked to an institution/university

  • Repository: storage of information

  • Digital:information in electronic format

  • An Institutional Repository is an online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating -- in digital form -- the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution.

  • In general – but not always! – Institutional Repositories are Open Access.

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Objectives

  • The main objectives of an institutional repository are:

  • to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research; from North-South flow to South-North flow

  • to collect content in a single location;

  • to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving/self-publishing it;

  • to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature (e.g., theses or technical reports).

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Current situation - visibility

  • OPENDOAR.ORG – Directory of Open Access Repositories

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Current situation - dispersion

  • Non-digital information is not retrievable – record information is, full text is not available

  • Access on the university only?

  • Access on the faculty only?

  • No aggregation of knowledge

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Current situation – self-archiving

  • Non-digital information is not retrievable – via institution’s library catalogue only

  • Are research reports born digital?

  • Do researchers control their own publication?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


Current situation - preservation

  • Will publications be accessible in 10 years time?

  • Will publications be accessible at your institution?

  • Persistent Identifiers?

Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


What is in a repository

  • Records (containing metadata) with links to electronic documents

  • Not limited to a specific fileformat (although it is smart to standardize)

  • Digital resources include items such as:

    • digitized (i.e., scanned) books and articles

    • born-digital texts

    • audio files (e.g., wav, mp3)

    • images (e.g., tiff, gif)

    • movies (e.g., mp4, quicktime)

    • datasets (e.g., downloadable statistics files)

  • Sets = subsets of records for a specific subject

    • Function: selective harvesting

    • Subject, publication type, document type

  • Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    How it is organized

    • Content subdivided into sets

    • Accessible via a standardized protocol: Open Archive Initiative – Protocol for Metadata Harvesting

    • Records with links to full text

    • Records can contain abstracts

    • Keywords, thesaurus terms

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Examples

    • Find repositories at the Directory of Open Access Repositories: www.opendoar.org

    • Found:

    • African Higher Education Research Online (http://ahero.uwc.ac.za/)

    • AAU-ETD – Addis Ababa University Libraries Electronic Thesis and Dissertations Database (http://etd.aau.edu.et/dspace)

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    AHERO

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Recommendations (1)

    • Foster your “born digital” documents – accept digital theses only?!

    • Agree on file formats – PDF?

    • Agee on data sets

    • Publish statistics for evidence

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Repositories and Harvesters

    • Harvesting:

    • From Institutional Repositories to Subject repositories

    • From centralized to distributed model

    • Data providers – service providers

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    DATAD

    DATAD II

    Full

    Text

    Scientist/researcher

    Institutions

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    DATAD

    DATAD II

    Full

    Text

    Scientist/researcher

    Institutions

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    DATAD

    DATAD II

    Full

    Text

    Scientist/researcher

    Harvest

    Institutions

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    DATAD

    DATAD II

    Full

    Text

    Scientist/researcher

    Harvest

    Harvesters

    Institutions

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Open Standards

    • Not discriminating against open source developers

    • HTTP based

    • OAI-PMH: verbs like “Identify”, “Listsets”, “ListIdentifiers”, “ListMetadataFormats”, “Request”, “GetRecord”.

    • XML – structured data, machine & human readable

    • Metadata formats: Dublin Core (DC) is obligatory, other metadata formats optional, like:

      • DIDL (Digital Item Declaration Language)

      • MARC

      • METS (Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard)

      • MODS (Metadata Object Description Schema)

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Open standards (cont’d)

    • Dublin Core – managed by the DC Metadata Initiative:

    • Title

    • Contributor

    • Source

    • Creator

    • Date

    • Language

    • Subject

    • Type

    • Relation

    • Description

    • Format

    • Coverage

    • Publisher

    • Identifier

    • Rights

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Central Repositories

    Per subject (self archiving)

    • Cogprints: Cognitive Science, including psychology, neuroscience, linguistics

    • ArXiv: physics, methematics, computer science

    • RePec: Research Papers in Economics

    • DATAD: Database of African Theses and Dissertations

    • AgEcon: Research in agriculture and applied economics

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Repositories harvested/aggregated

    • General - OAIster – find the pearls – in 20 million records from 1092 contributors (as per March 12)

    • “cocoa” – 1841 records, “cocoa ghana” 247 records

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Recommendations (2)

    • Agree on data structures for optimal interoperability

    • Agree on metadata standards. Example: main conclusions and recommendations in abstract; keywords

    • Distinguish between data and services

    • Define a grow path – that respects every institution’s capabilities

    • Support for all variations in implementation

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Be seen!

    • Implement OAI-PMH

    • Register your Institutional Repository

    • Be visible to search engines – via OAIster

    • Promote using the top researchers (“keur der wetenschap” – involve scientific elite)

    • Convince with statistics, citations

    • Make it attractive to deliver content – “get it out of the drawer”

    • Involve the researchers, and all others

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Plan for sustainability

    • Support is key

    • Be in control: organize it

    • Data – open standards for future accessibility

    • Involve with existing communities vs create your own community…

    • On national – regional – african – global level

    • Inter-institution exchange and support – human resources

    • Limit the number of software packages (and the knowledge needed for operation)

    • Preservation of data – do better than LOCKSS

    • Low bandwidth – do harvesting yourself; it is doable

    • Plan for independency of bandwidth as much as possible

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Recommendations (3)

    • Plan for sustainability

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    (Free and) Open Source Software

    • Weaknesses, strengths

    • “Organic growth” of OSS needs to be planned

    • FOSS - support - community - collaboration

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Recommendations (4)

    • Don’t reinvent the wheel, just drive

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


    Information Sources

    • Wikipedia – incl. the interesting links

    • DRIVER – Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research – www.driver-community.euIncludes the “Checklist implementation institutional repository” of Eleftheria

    • www.openarchives.org

    • http://www.oaforum.org/tutorial/english/intro.htm

    • Plagiarism: Free online tools available www.scanmyessay.com ; www.turnitin.com

    Amsterdam, The Netherlands www.kit.nl


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