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Improving Meat Tenderness. Dr. John Marchello and Dr. Ron Allen. Outline (for the boring part of the talk). Why is meat tender or “less tender” (tough) Muscle structure and contraction Rigor mortis and meat tenderness Post-mortem aging of meat. Fundamental Aspects of Meat Tenderness.

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Improving meat tenderness l.jpg

Improving Meat Tenderness

Dr. John Marchello and Dr. Ron Allen


Outline for the boring part of the talk l.jpg
Outline (for the boring part of the talk)

  • Why is meat tender or “less tender” (tough)

  • Muscle structure and contraction

  • Rigor mortis and meat tenderness

  • Post-mortem aging of meat


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Fundamental Aspects of Meat Tenderness

  • Background Aspects of Tenderness

    • Primarily Connective Tissue

      • Muscle use

      • Age

  • Contractile Machinery

    • Degree of contraction

    • Integrity of the contractile machinery





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Rigor Mortis

  • Muscle continues to contract and relax after death

  • Without oxygen, lactic acid builds up

  • Energy production stops

  • Muscle filaments permanently lock together

  • Muscle becomes stiff

  • If filaments lock in a relaxed state, muscle is tender


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“Cold Shortening”

  • Cold temperature causes contraction

  • Filaments lock together in a contracted state

  • Rate of chilling and Rate of rigor mortis affect cold shortening


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Postmortem Aging

Calcium activated enzymes (Calpains) break filament structure

Breakdown of contractile machinery integrity increases tenderness

Calpastatin, an inhibitor of calpains prevents breakdown and decreases tenderness

Nutrition, management and genetics can affect levels of Calpains and Calpastatins - therefore, tenderness can be altered.


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Outline

  • Why is meat tender or “less tender” (tough)

  • Rigor mortis and meat tenderness – state of contraction determines tenderness

  • Post-mortem aging of meat – degradation of contractile machinery by Calpain enzymes results in increased tenderness during aging




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PALATABILITY

  • Of the six meat palatability factors (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, aroma, color,texture), tenderness is generally considered the most important palatability factor by the consumer.

  • In recent years, the meat industry has made great progress in improving tenderness both through genetics improvement and meat science technology.


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DIFFERENT MUSCLES

Different muscles in the meat animal have different functions.

  • Some muscles are defined as muscles of locomotion. These muscles are used to move the animal and as a result of this function, they are less tender.

  • The other muscles in the meat animal are called muscles of attachment. They do very little work and as a result of less work they are more tender.

  • They are often called middle meats and they sell for a higher price because of their tenderness.

  • Muscles found in the loin and rib are examples of muscles of attachment.


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Muscles of attachment

Major muscles of locomotion


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  • After death, the muscle fibers contract as the lactic acid content increases in the muscle.

  • This is known as rigor mortis and this occurrence causes muscle to become less tender especially in young cattle.

  • Rigor is complete after about 48 hours post-mortem. The lactic acid is produce after death from glucose which is stored in muscle.

  • This is called “post-mortem glycolysis” and occurs without oxygen. Rigor causes the muscle to shorten which results in muscle toughening.

  • Therefore, the muscle contractile unit called the scarcomere must be broken down to improve tenderness which will allow the heat of cooking to further improve tenderness.


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SHEAR FORCE content increases in the muscle.

  • From a research standpoint, a number of procedures are available to measure tenderness.

  • One of the best procedures is determining the pounds of force required to shear a ½ inch core of the steak.

  • The steak is cooked to 160O F and at least 8- ½ inch cores are removed from the steak and a Warner-Bratzler shear machine is used to measure the pounds of force required to shear the core.


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A METHOD OF TENDERNESS EVALUATION content increases in the muscle.

Warner- Brazler Shear Force


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Cooking to measure tenderness by shear force value content increases in the muscle.


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Coring for shear force content increases in the muscle.

measurements


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  • Shear values less than 7 content increases in the muscle. – VERY TENDER

  • 7 to 10 – tenderness decreases as shear value increases

  • 10 and up -- tough


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SHEAR FORCE VALUES content increases in the muscle.

WAGULI VS. BRAHMAN

Waguli

5

11

4

7

13

1

3

6

1

7

____________________________

5.8

Brahman

11

17

9

2

8

3

13

10

7

15

______________________

9.5


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TENDERIZATION PROCEDUIRES content increases in the muscle.

DRY AGING

WET AGING

ELECTRICAL STIMUALTION

MECHANICAL TENDERIZATION

GRINDING

CHEMICAL


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DRY AGING content increases in the muscle.


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VACUUM PACKAGING content increases in the muscle.

WET AGING


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PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES content increases in the muscle.

  • Cathepsins from lysosomes

  • Calpain – two types u & m

  • Macro Ca++ and Micro Ca++

  • Calpastatin – depresses Calpain action


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SHEAR FORCE VALUES content increases in the muscle.

WAGULI VS. BRAHMAN

Waguli

5

11

4

7

13

1

3

6

1

7

Av 5.8

Brahman

11

17

9

2

8

3

13

10

7

15

Av.9.5

Brahma carcasses possessed 3 times more Calpastatin than the Waguli cattle carcasses


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ELECTRICAL STIMULATION content increases in the muscle.


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TEXAS TENDER STRETCH content increases in the muscle.


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MECHANICAL TENDERIZATION content increases in the muscle.

Blade tenderizing

Stainless steel blades

Penetrating the muscle


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BLADE TENDERIZATION content increases in the muscle.


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CHEMICAL TENDERIZERS content increases in the muscle.

  • Papain extracted from papaya

  • Bromelain extracted from pineapple

  • Ficin extracted from figs


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CHEMICAL TENDERIZERS content increases in the muscle.

  • Primal cuts such the rib or loin care injected with the enzyme

  • The steaks are cut from the primal cuts and cooked.


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  • The heat of cooking will activate these proteolytic compounds to help tenderize during the cooking process.

  • These enzymes are activated by heat at about 100o F and deactivated at 140o F.

  • There are chemical tenderizers that can be purchased for home use as well.


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OVER COOKING MAY CAUSE A DECREASE IN TENDERNESS compounds to help tenderize during the cooking process.


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