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Monday, 10 March 2014. How much grammar do I need to know?. www.geoffbarton.co.uk. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS. 1 - Sentence types (co-ordination & subordination) 2 - Modification 3 - Cohesion. - -. GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS. SENTENCE TYPES. - 1 -. There are 3 types of sentences: Simple sentences

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slide2

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

1 - Sentence types

(co-ordination & subordination)

2 -Modification

3 - Cohesion

- -

slide3

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

SENTENCE TYPES

- 1 -

slide4

There are 3 types of sentences:

    • Simple sentences
    • Compound sentences (coordination)
    • Complex sentences (subordination)
  • Using a variety of sentences will improve your writing.
slide5

1: SIMPLE SENTENCES

Seamus smells rather badly

Seamus is asleep

Seamus has a chronic haemorrhoid problem

Seamus likes warmth

Old Seamus is positively knackered

Old Seamus used to be fun

slide6

1: SIMPLE SENTENCES

Seamus smells rather badly

  • Essential ingredients:
  • Subject
  • Verb chain
  • Tells us about one thing

Seamus is asleep

Seamus has a chronic haemorrhoid problem

Seamus likes warmth

Old Seamus is positively knackered

Old Seamus used to be fun

slide7

1: SIMPLE SENTENCES

Statements:

The beach is beautiful.

The sea is calm.

Questions:

Where are we?

Why is the sea calm?

Commands:

Go to the beach.

Buy me a choc-ice.

Sentence functions ...

slide8

1: SIMPLE SENTENCES

In action ...

slide9

Kipper wanted a dog.

Everyone wanted a dog.

They went to the dogs’ home.

They looked at the dogs.

Kipper wanted this dog.

It was too big.

Biff wanted this dog.

It was too little.

Mum wanted this dog.

It was too strong.

Everyone liked this dog.

They took the dog home.

A New Dog (OUP)

slide10

Effect …?

A New Dog (OUP)

slide12

Simple sentences in context ...

  • Giveclarity
  • Can become repetitive
  • Can be very short
  • Are separated by full stops, not commas
  • Can be great forinstructions, factual writing, texts for children, suspense
slide13

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

COMPOUND SENTENCES / COORDINATION

- -

slide14

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

The woman is worried and she looks out of the window and she wants to see someone but she is all alone and there is no one there.

slide15

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

The woman is worried and she looks out of the window and she wants to see someone but she is all alone and there is no one there.

slide16

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

The woman is worried. and She looks out of the window. and She wants to see someone. but She is all alone. and There is no one there.

slide17

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

  • Essential ingredients:
  • Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions
    • And
    • But
    • Or
slide18

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

This creates coordination

I like fish and I enjoy chips

I adore fish but I hate chips

I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

slide19

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

This creates coordination

I like fish and I enjoy chips

I adore fish but I hate chips

I enjoy fish, or I did as a child

slide20

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

VISUAL GRAMMAR

slide21

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

Grammar and effect ...

I am four and my sister is three and she is often cross but today she is happy and we are going for a picnic but I am taking my bucket and spade and we will play on the beach but not if it’s raining and then we will come home and I will watch Tweenies and … (YAWN)

slide22

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

  • Sailor Bear
  • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at his suit and he knew what to do.
  • “I’ll be a sailor, and sail on the sea!” decided Small Bear.
  • But he hadn’t a boat.
  • “Now what shall I do?” wondered Small Bear.
  • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at the sea and he knew what to do.
slide23

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

  • Sailor Bear
  • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at his suit and he knew what to do.
  • “I’ll be a sailor, and sail on the sea!” decided Small Bear.
  • But he hadn’t a boat.
  • “Now what shall I do?” wondered Small Bear.
  • He thought and he thought. Then he looked at the sea and he knew what to do.
slide24

2: COMPOUND SENTENCES

  • Essential ingredients:
  • Simple sentences joined by the conjunctions
    • And
    • But
    • Or
slide26

Compound sentences in context ...

  • Create longer sentences
  • Coordinate ideas (equal weighting)
  • Can become repetitive
  • Can sound colloquial, conversational
  • Are great for personal writing, stories, information texts …
  • … But must be used with care
slide27

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

COMPLEX SENTENCES / SUBORDINATION

- -

slide28

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean. Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards. Determined to find food, it scours the coral reef. He moves upwards because he senses danger.

slide29

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

This creates subordination

Remember coordination …?

I like fish and I enjoy chips

slide31

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean.

SUBORDINATION

slide32

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

The sea bass, which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean.

MAIN CLAUSE

SUBORDINATION

slide33

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

The sea bass,which was filmed two days ago, cruises slowly through the ocean.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

SUBORDINATION

slide34

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards.

SUBORDINATION

slide35

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards.

MAIN CLAUSE

slide36

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

Starting at the bottom, it works its way upwards.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

slide37

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

He moves upwards because he senses danger.

SUBORDINATION

slide38

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

He moves upwards because he senses danger.

MAIN CLAUSE

slide39

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

He moves upwards because he senses danger.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

slide40

3: COMPLEX SENTENCES

VISUAL GRAMMAR

slide41

MAIN CLAUSE

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

slide42

MAIN CLAUSE

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

  • Conjunction:
      • because
      • although
      • as
slide43

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

  • Conjunction:
      • because
      • although
      • as
slide44

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

Make sure the subject agrees

-Ing verb:

  • Walking
  • Thinking
  • Hoping
slide45

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

Make sure the subject agrees

-ed verb:

  • Frustrated
  • Destroyed
  • Undermined
slide46

MAIN CLAUSE

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE

  • relative pronoun:
  • Who
  • Which
  • That
slide47

Handy Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions

And, but, or

Subordinating conjunctions

after, although, as, as if, as long as, as though, because, before, if , in case, once, since, than, that, though, until, unless, when, whenever, where, wherever, whereas, while

slide49

COMPLEX SENTENCES ...

Have a main clause and a subordinate clause linked by ...

Conjunction - as, until, after …

-ing verb

-ed verb

Relative pronoun - who, which, that ..

slide50

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

Modification

- 2 -

slide51

So are simple sentences always short …?

Old smelly Seamus used to be soundly asleep on the old fur rug.

Seamus is asleep.

slide52

Simple sentences don’t need to be short, if we use modification ..

Modifying a noun with an adjective:

The house is menacing

old

musty

smelly

revolting

slide53

Simple sentences don’t need to be short, if we use modification ..

Modifying an adjective with an adverb:

The house is menacing

old

too

really

horribly

very

slide54

Simple sentences don’t need to be short, if we use modification ..

Modifying a verb with an adverb:

The wolf yawns in his sleep

imperceptibly

lazily

uneasily

frighteningly

slide57

The Other Side of the Dale

County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice ...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place.

Gervase Phinn

slide58

The Other Side of the Dale

County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice ...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place.

Gervase Phinn

slide59

The Other Side of the Dale

County Hall was a large, grey, stone mansion of an edifice ...The interior was like a museum, hushed and cool, with long echoey, oak-pannelled corridors, high ornate ceilings, marble figures and walls full of gilt-framed portraits of former councillors, mayors, aldermen, leaders of the Council, high sheriffs, lord lieutenants, members of parliament and other dignitaries. It was really quite a daunting place.

Gervase Phinn

slide60

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

COHESION:

Pronouns and other connectives

- 3 -

slide61

COHESION

Cohesion is the way we show the reader the ‘direction’ of a text using ...

PRONOUNS:

she / he / it / they / we / us

CONNECTIVES:

Before, later, on the other hand, despite this, however ...

spot the cohesion devices

SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES

At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple is no longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholder’s fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice.

Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruit’s impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular.

Nigel Slater, Real Good Food

spot the cohesion devices63

Pronouns

SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES

At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple is no longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholder’s fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice.

Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruit’s impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular.

Nigel Slater, Real Good Food

spot the cohesion devices64

connectives

SPOT THE COHESION DEVICES

At around £1 for a large fruit, the pineapple isno longer the special-occasion fruit it was in my childhood. (If there is a pineapple in the fruit bowl, then it must be Christmas.) More recently, in the lush, tropical heat of Goa, the fruit became a daily ritual during a beach-bum holiday. Armed with a plump pineapple, chosen for its ripeness and stripped of its inedible skin by the stallholder’s fearsome machete, we would wander far along the deserted beach to make the most of the fruit and its sticky juice.

Six months later, in the frost-covered gardens of Versailles, the statues and urns wrapped up for the winter, such a fruit seemed even more welcome, cheering us up as our teeth chattered and we dripped juice into the snow as we walked. It is this fruit’s impeccable timing, turning up sweet and gold in the depths of winter, that probably makes it so popular.

Nigel Slater, Real Good Food

slide66

GRAMMAR ESSENTIALS

1 - Sentence types

2 -Modification

3 - Cohesion

SENTENCE LEVEL

WORD LEVEL

TEXT LEVEL

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