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NUTRONS FIRST Seminar Kyle Henry 11/12/2007 Agenda Kickoff/Engineering Process Build Season Mechanical Design Electrical Layout Kickoff The Engineering Process Basic steps to breakdown and solve any problem Pre-Kickoff Things you need to do before the kickoff During the Webcast

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Presentation Transcript
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NUTRONS

FIRST

Seminar

Kyle Henry

11/12/2007


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Agenda

  • Kickoff/Engineering Process

  • Build Season

  • Mechanical Design

  • Electrical Layout


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Kickoff

  • The Engineering Process

    • Basic steps to breakdown and solve any problem

  • Pre-Kickoff

    • Things you need to do before the kickoff

  • During the Webcast

    • What you need to do while watching the webcast of the kickoff event.

  • Post Kickoff

    • Engineering Process

    • Tasks for after the webcast and game review


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The Engineering Process

Needs Assessment

Implementation

Problem Formulation

Analysis

Abstraction and Synthesis

-Brainstorming


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Pre-Kickoff

  • Download the manuals

    • The manuals are available but password protected

  • Organize your build schedule

    • Set goals and deadlines and stick to them

    • Decide team goals for the build

      • Base them off of your skills and desires


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Kickoff Webcast

  • Take Notes

  • Ask Questions

    • Open question forum online for your advisor, you can post questions online.

  • Review the playing field and elements

  • Review all the game rules

  • Understand Scoring Structure


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Post Kickoff

  • From Team Goals decide Strategy

    • Goals for the Robot

    • Style of Drive train

    • Robot Accessories (ARM)

  • Brainstorming and Conceptual Designs

    • Ideas only!

  • Read Chief Delphi Forums

    • www.chiefdelphi.com

    • This is a fantastic FIRST Forum

    • Amazing team resource!


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Build Season

  • Conceptual Design

    • Basic Concepts and Prototype Defined

  • Finished Design

    • Concepts to Drawings for Manufacturing

  • Manufacturing

    • Creating the Parts

  • Test

    • Making sure your Robot Works


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Conceptual Design

  • Draw and Sketch your Ideas

    • Napkin to CAD Cartoons

  • Define Methods

    • How are you going to do something

    • Rotation vs. Elevator

  • Prototype

    • Mock up of Components


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Finished Design

  • Designs ready for Manufacture

    • Pictures or plans with dimensions and layout.

  • CAD or Finalized Graphical Representation

    • Full CAD is unnecessary

    • Paint, Word and PowerPoint

  • K.I.S.S.

    • Keep It Simple Stupid

    • Simplicity is the key to success


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Manufacturing

  • K.I.S.S.

    • Simple Design = Faster and Easier Manufacturing

    • Cheaper Robot

      • Less likely to mess up a part

  • This is where all designs get hung up

  • Critical to stay on time and on budget


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Test

  • Drive Train

    • Test Early and Often

    • Main area for problems to exist and grow

  • Plan time for Programmers to Debug and code

  • More Testing results in better Finished Robot

    • Find your errors before you hit the field.


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Mechanical Design

  • Materials

    • Your design is only as good as what you build it with

  • Material Alloys

  • Motors

    • Know the Specs

  • Drivetrain

    • IMPORTANT: Critical to all Working Robots!

  • Accessories

    • What else will your robot do?


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Materials

  • Material Selection

    • Critical to your design

  • Strength and Density

    • 2 most critical properties FOR FIRST!

  • Know what you want your material to do so you can choose the type appropriately.


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Material Alloys

  • Aluminum

    • 6061-T6

      • Most Common Structural Alloy

    • 7075

      • Aircraft Aluminum

      • Stronger and More Expensive than 6061

  • Steel

    • 1018 and other Mild Steels

      • Common Alloys for added strength in components

    • 4140 – Chromalli

      • Stronger than Mild Steels

      • Good for Critical Locations


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Motors

  • Availability

  • Specs

    • Torque Curves

  • What do you need the motors to do?

    • Speed (RPM)

    • Torque

    • Installation

    • Weight

  • Choose the right one for the right application


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Drive Trains - Type

  • Tank Drive

    • Left and Right Independent motion

      • Drive it like a tank

      • 2, 4 & 6 Wheel as well as tank tread (usually timing belt)

  • Swerve Drive

    • Rotate the wheels to the direction of travel

  • Crab Drive

    • 2 sets of DTs set 90º from each other.

  • Holonomic

    • Special Omni-wheels that while varying


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Drive Train - Criteria

  • Choosing the right Drive Train for you:

  • Speed

    • How fast do you need to go?

  • Agility

    • Are there obstacles on the field or do you want to be able to out maneuver around other teams?

  • Power

    • Do you have to pull or push something?

    • Do you want to be able to push people around?

  • Traction

    • What will you be driving on?


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Fastening Devices

  • Nuts and Bolts

    • ¼-20, 10-32 - common

    • Lock Nuts or Loctyte

    • Removable

  • Welding

    • Permanent, strong

    • Need skill and experience

  • Rivets

    • Semi-Permanent

    • Can replace if falls out

    • Can drill out and later replace


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Bearings and Bushings

  • Bearings:

    • Needle

      • Thinner Radially

    • Ball

      • Most Common

    • Thrust

      • Used for Support in Axial Direction

  • Bushings

    • Bronze

      • Typical material

      • No moving parts, rely on low friction between the material.

      • Radial and Thrust avialable

  • Do your research on what the device can withstand.

  • Anything that moves needs some kind of bearing or bushing


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Wheels

  • There are multiple things to consider when choosing your wheels

  • Traction

    • Too much may actually be bad – decreases turning and agility

    • Need enough though to be able to move and push.

  • Omni-Wheels

    • Allow transverse motion.


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Accessory Devices

  • Accessories are game dependant.

  • Examples include:

    • Arms

    • Elevator

    • Ball Intake devices

    • Hoppers

    • Ball Shooters

    • Grippers

    • Wings

    • Ramps


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Arms, Elevator and Wings

  • Arms

    • General goal is to lift and object

    • Generally use rotating joints to move.

  • Elevator

    • Uses linear motion to raise or lower an object

  • Wings

    • Increase your size generally used to push or “herd” objects.



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Electrical Components

  • Victor 884

    • 40 AMP capacity

    • Pulse-Width Modulators (PWM)

    • Vary current going through based on 1-256 input from a joystick.

      • 128 is neutral number.

    • Component that controls motors

  • Spike Relay

    • On/off Switch

    • Typically for pneumatics.


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Robot Controller

  • “Brain” of the Robot

  • All components are controlled with PWM cables that run back to the RC.

  • Has a processor


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