Florida’s GM Approach. A Brief History of Florida’s GM Efforts An early comer to GM efforts, in the early and mid 1970s Florida’s Legislature passed a number of pieces of legislation: 1) Water Resources Act (1972) 2) Comprehensive Planning Act (1975) 3) Land Conservation Act (1972)
The Basic Mechanisms Behind GM in Florida: (The Three C’s)
1) Consistency: Local plans must be consistent with the overall state plan; Local plans must be consistent with regional plans; Local plans must be consistent with other local plans; State agency plans must be consistent with the state plan and regional plans.
2) Concurrency: A legal requirement that local governments may not issue a development order unless the order will not degrade mandated service levels for six kinds of public facilities: 1) Transportation 4) Potable Water 2) Sanitary Sewer 5) Parks and Recreation 3) Solid Waste 6) Stormwater Management
3) Compact Urban Form: The state administrative code governing the development of local comprehensive plans required local governments to develop policies to combat sprawl.
Local Government Comprehensive Plans
Local Government Comprehensive Plans
Florida’s Intended GM Planning Structure
State Comprehensive Plan
From Tinker Presentation (formerly on www.FloridaGrowth.org)
Strategic Regional Policy Plans --Affordable Housing --Economic Development --Emergency Preparedness --Regional Transportation --Natural Resources of Regional Significance
West Florida Regional Planning Council
Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Bay, Holmes, Washington
Apalachee Regional Planning Council
Calhoun, Franklin, Liberty, Wakulla, Leon, Gadsden, Jackson, Gulf, Jefferson
North Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Alachua, Union, Bradford, Gilchrist, Columbia, Dixie, Hamilton, Madison, Suwannee, Taylor, Lafayette
Northeast Florida Regional Planning Council
Baker, Clay, Duval, Flagler, Nassau, Putnam, St. Johns
Withlacoochee Regional Planning Council
Citrus, Hernando, Levy, Marion, Sumter
East Central Florida Regional Planning Council
Brevard, Lake, Orange, Volusia, Osceola, Seminole
Central Florida Regional Planning Council
DeSoto, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Polk
Tampa Bay Regional Planning Council
Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, Pinellas
Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council
Charlotte, Collier, Glades, Hendry, Lee, Sarasota
Treasure Coast Regional Planning Council
Indian River, Martin, Palm Beach, St. Lucie
South Florida Regional Planning Council
Broward, Dade, Monroe
Note: Much of this material is taken from an excellent summary of the EAR process and EAR requirements put together by FDCA. It is available online at:http://www.dca.state.fl.us/fdcp/DCP/ear/indexear.htm
The purposes of EARs include:
1) Identify major issues facing the community
2) Review past actions of the local government in implementing the plan since the last EAR
3) Assess the degree to which plan objectives have been achieved
4) Assess both successes and shortcomings of the plan
5) Identify ways that the plan should be changed, such as
--Respond to changing conditions and trends affecting the local community
--Respond to the need for new data
--Respond to changes in state requirements regarding growth management and development
--Respond to changes in regional plans
6) Ensure effective intergovernmental coordination
Infrastructure plays an essential role in GM as conceived and implemented in Florida.
1) The concurrency requirement mandates that local government set Level of Service (LOS) standards for six types of public facilities (roads, sewers, water, solid waste, drainage, parks & rec) and these standards guide the approval process for proposed developments.
2) Among the development controls that can be used to deal with sprawl are (9J-5.006):
-Urban Service Areas -Urban Growth Boundaries -Phasing of Urban Growth -Infra Extension Controls
3) In addition, DCA pushed areas to develop an infrastructure and development database (a “concurrency management system”) to help further develop the linkage between the comprehensive planning process and the CIP process.
Florida Department of Community Affairs Home Page
DCA’s Division of Community Planning
Florida’s Growth Management Study Commission
Info on Developments of Regional Impact (DRIs)
SmartGrowth Online: www.smartgrowth.org/
Nat’l Center for Smart Growth Research: www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/
Growth Management Institute:http://www.gmionline.org/
1) TLC Future Land Use Goals, Objectives, Policies
2) TLC’s Urban Service Area Strategy
3) Urban Fringe Growth Areas
4) County Future Land Use Map
5) Urban Area Future Land Use Map
The Comprehensive Plan shall protect and enhance the quality of life in this community by providing economically sound [land use] opportunities to its citizens while channeling inevitable growth into locations and activities that protect the natural and aesthetic environments and residential neighborhoods.
Provide for a high quality of life by planning for population growth, public and private development and redevelopment and the proper distribution, location and extent of land uses by type, density and intensity consistent with adequate levels of services and efficient use of facilities and the protection of natural resources and residential neighborhoods.
Tallahassee-Leon County should continue to grow with an emphasis on selected growth that pays for itself through the provision of well paid jobs and economic leverage factors which enhance the quality of life of the community.
Objective 1.1 (LU)
Direct development to those areas which have in place, or have agreements to provide, the land and water resources, fiscal abilities, and the service capacity to accommodate growth in an environmentally acceptable manner.
Policy 1.1.1:In order to discourage urban sprawl, new development shall be concentrated in the urban service area…
Policy 1.1.2: Improvement of capital infrastructure shall be provided within the designated urban service area and shall be phased over the life of the plan.
Policy 1.1.3:Capital infrastructure designed to support urban density outside the Urban Service Area shall be prohibited. Capital infrastructure which is designed or intended to provide services to the population of the Urban Service Area may be located outside the Urban Service Area. This policy includes but is not limited to landfill, spray irrigation facilities, and inter-county transportation roadways.
Policy 1.1.5: Growth shall be directed to where excess facilities capacity currently exists within the urban service area as identified within the individual plan elements.
Objective 1.3 (LU)
Achieve and maintain the adopted level of service standards set forth within the Tallahassee-Leon County Comprehensive Plan.
Policy 1.3.1: Before a development order or permit is issued, local government shall ensure that the adopted level of service standards for the affected public facilities will be maintained…
Objective 1.1: (CI)
Define types of public facilities, establish standards for levels of service for each type of public facility, and determine what capital improvements are needed in order to achieve and maintain the standards for existing and future populations, and to repair or replace existing public facilities.
Language from the TLC Comp Plan on the USA includes:
The Urban Service Area strategy has the following implications for capital improvement budgeting:
1) Capital infrastructure will not be programmed or extended to areas outside the designated urban service area unless the infrastructure is needed to serve population located within the Urban Service Area.
2) Areas within the Urban Service Area can expect capital infrastructure and services to be available within the time frame of the plan (2010 for Phase I and 2020 for Phase II (Effective 4/18/02)).
3) Capital improvement projects or expenditures designed to support urban density outside of the Urban Service Area will not occur outside the designated Urban Service Area unless a demonstrated hardship can be shown.