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1. Essentialism William Bagley
3. Philosopher William Bagley introduced the philosophy of essentialism in education in the 1930s. Then essentialism was criticized as being too rigid to prepare students adequately for adult life.
4. Purpose of Schooling Prepare students to be productive, contributing members of society.
For essentialist, the aim of education is to teach the young the essentials they need to live well in the modern world.
5. Teachers Role Teacher is expert of content knowledge.
Teaches essential knowledge.
Maintains task-oriented focus.
6. Teaching Strategies Avoids methodological frills and soft pedagogy and concentrates on sound, proven instructional methods.
7. Curriculum Strong emphasis on basic skills in elementary schools and on disciplined knowledge and scholastic achievement in secondary schools
8. Students Role Is there to listen and learn.
9. Metaphysics What is relevant is what helps an individual live well and what benefits humanity.
10. Epistemology Truth exists in the classics and modern science.
Students must learn process and content.
Knowledge is gained through the interaction of experiences and rational thought.
11. Axiology Determined by the natural order of things.
Values exist in the best of culture.
12. Logic Rationality is best developed through interplay of deductive and inductive thinking.