Philosophy. Essentialism is a uniquely American philosophy of education which began in the 1930's and 1940's as a reaction to what was seen as a overemphasis on a child-centered approach to education and a concern that students were not gaining appropriate knowledge in schools.The two origins of essentialism is from idealism and realism.Essentialist believe that there exist a critical core of information and skill that an educated person must have. .
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1. Essentialism William Bagley
3. Philosopher William Bagley introduced the philosophy of essentialism in education in the 1930’s. Then essentialism was criticized as being too rigid to prepare students adequately for adult life.
4. Purpose of Schooling Prepare students to be productive, contributing members of society.
For essentialist, the aim of education is to teach the young the essentials they need to live well in the modern world.
5. Teacher’s Role Teacher is expert of content knowledge.
Teaches essential knowledge.
Maintains task-oriented focus.
6. Teaching Strategies Avoids methodological frills and soft pedagogy and concentrates on sound, proven instructional methods.
7. Curriculum Strong emphasis on basic skills in elementary schools and on disciplined knowledge and scholastic achievement in secondary schools
8. Student’s Role Is there to listen and learn.
9. Metaphysics What is relevant is what helps an individual live well and what benefits humanity.
10. Epistemology Truth exists in the classics and modern science.
Students must learn process and content.
Knowledge is gained through the interaction of experiences and rational thought.
11. Axiology Determined by the natural order of things.
Values exist in the best of culture.
12. Logic Rationality is best developed through interplay of deductive and inductive thinking.