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DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY. DR.RITA SWAMINATHAN MR.NARAYANA KAMATH. PARASITOLOGY. INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLGY. DEFINITIONS.

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department of microbiology
DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

DR.RITA SWAMINATHAN

MR.NARAYANA KAMATH

parasitology

PARASITOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLGY

definitions
DEFINITIONS
  • Parasite: Is a living organism that is entirely dependent on another living organism(host) for its nutrition and shelter and may cause injurious consequences in the host.
  • Types 1 Microparasite

2 Macroparasite A.Ectoparasite(infestation)

B. Endoparasite(infection)

a. obligate parasite

b.facultative parasite

c. accidental parasite

d. aberrant parasite

e.free-living

hosts
HOSTS
  • Definitive host
  • Intermediate host- vector(biological&mechanical)
  • Paratenic host (Transport host)
  • Reservoir host
  • Accidental host
  • Amplifier host
host parasite relationships
HOST – PARASITERELATIONSHIPS
  • Symbiosis
  • Parasitism
  • Commensalism
classification
CLASSIFICATION
  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA
  • Sub kingdom : Protozoa
  • Phyla : Sarcomastigophora

Microsporidia

Ciliophora

Apicomplexa

protozoa unicellular
PROTOZOA(Unicellular)
  • 1.Amoebae Entamoeba histolytica
  • 2.Flagellates Giardia lamblia

Trichomonas vaginalis

Leishmania donovani

Trypanosoma cruzi

3.Sporozoa Plasmodium Spp.

Toxoplasma gondii

4.Ciliates Balantidium coli

classification8
CLASSIFICATION
  • Kingdom : Animalia
  • Subkingdom : Metazoa

Phylum:

Nemathelminthes

Phylum:

Platyhelminthes

Class:Trematoda

(Flukes)

Class: Nematoda

(Round worms)

Class:Cestoda

(Tape worms)

helminths multicellular
HELMINTHS(Multicellular)
  • 1.Trematodes Fasciola Spp.

Schistosoma Spp.

2.Cestodes Taenia Spp.

Echinococcus Spp.

3.Nematodes Round worm

Hook worm

modes of infection
MODES OF INFECTION

1.INGESTION

a.Contaminated soil&water

b.Fresh water fish/water cress

c.Crab&crayfish

d.Raw&undercooked pork/Beef

modes of infection11
MODES OF INFECTION

2. INOCULATION

a.blood sucking insects

b.skin penetration by larval forms

3.SEXUAL TRANSMISSION

4. INHALATION

5. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION

6.AUTO INFECTION

life cycle
LIFE CYCLE
  • The sequential stages in growth,development, and multiplication of a parasite constitute its life cycle.
  • Simple with one host involved
  • Complex with more than one hosts(2-3).
parasites with simple life cycle
PARASITES WITH SIMPLE LIFE CYCLE
  • No intermediate hosts:
  • Protozoan parasites Definitive Host

Entamoeba histolytica Human

Giardia lamblia Human

Trichomonas vaginalis Human

Balantidium coli Pig/Human

Metazoan parasites

Ascaris lumbricoides Human

Enterobius vermicularis Human

Strongyloides stercoralis Human

Trichuris trichiura Human

pathogenicity
PATHOGENICITY
  • TRAUMA : S.stercoralis,A.duodenale
  • LYTIC NECROSIS:E.histolytica,Plasmodium Spp.
  • Competition for nutrients:D.latum(Vit.B12)
  • Inflammatory reactions:Hook worm,Malaria,E.histolytica.
  • Allergic manifestations:Schistosomes,T.spiralis
  • Neoplasia :C.sinesis
  • Secondary infections:Stongyloidiasis,trichinosis.
immunity
IMMUNITY
  • IMMUNE RESPONSE TO PARASITIC INFECTIONS HAS FOUR ARMS:
  • Cytotoxic T cells
  • Natural killer (NK) cells
  • Activated macrophages
  • Antibody(produced by B-cells)
laboratory diagnosis
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

A.Demonstration of the parasite

B.Immunodiagnosis

C.Molecular biological methods

demonstration of parasite
Demonstration of parasite
  • Blood : Plasmodium Spp.(RBCs),

L.donovani(monocytes)

Trypanosoma cruzi

Microfilariae(W.bancrofti)

Stool :Saline mount : Trophozoites: Entamoeba histolytica,Giardia lamblia

Lugol’s Iodine mount :Cysts : Entamoeba histolytica,Giardia lamblia

demonstration of parasite21
Demonstration of parasite

Eggs:Cestodes : Diphyllobothrium latum,Taenia solium

Trematodes: Schistosomes mansoni

Fasciola hepatica

Nematodes : Trichuris trichiura

Ancylostoma duodenale

LARVAE: Strongyloides stercoralis

Trichinella spiralis

demonstration of parasite22
Demonstration of parasite

ADULT WORMS :

Cestodes : Taenia solium,Diphyllobothrium latum

Nematodes : Ascaris lumbricoides,Enterobius vermicularis.

urine
URINE
  • Eggs of Schistosoma haematobium
  • Trophozoites of Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti in chylous urine.
other specimens
OTHER SPECIMENS
  • Genital specimens: Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Cerebrospinal fluid : Trypomastgotes of Trypanosoma brucei,Naegleria fowleri
  • Sputum : Eggs of Paragonimus westermani

Migrating larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale

Tissue biopsy & aspiration:Hydatid cyst

Trichinella spiralis

culture animal inoculations
CULTURE & ANIMAL INOCULATIONS
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia lamblia
  • Leishmania donovani
  • Toxoplasma gondii
skin tests
SKIN TESTS
  • 1.Immediate hypersensitivity(Filaria,Ascaris)
  • 2.Delayed hypersensitivity(Leishmania,Trypanosoma)
immunodiagnosis
IMMUNODIAGNOSIS
  • Serological tests:ELISA,RIA,Indirect haemagglutination test,Indirect fluorescent antibody test,Complement fixation test,Agglutination tests:Direct agglutination,Bentonite flocculation test.
  • Molecular methods: PCR & DNA probes.
stool examination
STOOL EXAMINATION
  • SALINE MOUNT
  • IODINE MOUNT
  • CONCENTRATION METHODS
concentration methods
CONCENTRATION METHODS
  • FLOATATION TECHNIQUE

Saturated salt floatation

Zinc sulphate centrifugal floatation

SEDIMENTATION TECHNIQUE

Simple sedimentation

Formalin-ether sedimentation

quantification of worm burden
QUANTIFICATION OF WORM BURDEN
  • Direct smear egg count
  • Stoll’s method
anal scrapings and swabs
ANAL SCRAPINGS AND SWABS
  • Scotch tape method
  • NIH swab

ENTEROTEST

slide32

f

Trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica

pseudopodia

RBC

nucleus

slide34

Ovum of Taenia solium

embryophore

hooklets

Outer

shell

onchosphere

slide35

Cyst of Giardia lamblia

nucleii

axostyle

cyst wall

slide36

Ovum of Nectar americanus

Hyaline sheath

blastomere

slide38

Ovum of Ascaris lumbricoides

Outer mamillated layer

Unsegmented ovum

slide39

Ova Of Trichuris trichiura

Mucus plug

Unsegmented ovum

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