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DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY. DR.RITA SWAMINATHAN MR.NARAYANA KAMATH. PARASITOLOGY. INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLGY. DEFINITIONS.

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Department of microbiology l.jpg
DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY

DR.RITA SWAMINATHAN

MR.NARAYANA KAMATH


Parasitology l.jpg

PARASITOLOGY

INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLGY


Definitions l.jpg
DEFINITIONS

  • Parasite: Is a living organism that is entirely dependent on another living organism(host) for its nutrition and shelter and may cause injurious consequences in the host.

  • Types 1 Microparasite

    2 Macroparasite A.Ectoparasite(infestation)

    B. Endoparasite(infection)

    a. obligate parasite

    b.facultative parasite

    c. accidental parasite

    d. aberrant parasite

    e.free-living


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HOSTS

  • Definitive host

  • Intermediate host- vector(biological&mechanical)

  • Paratenic host (Transport host)

  • Reservoir host

  • Accidental host

  • Amplifier host


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HOST – PARASITERELATIONSHIPS

  • Symbiosis

  • Parasitism

  • Commensalism


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CLASSIFICATION

  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA

  • Sub kingdom : Protozoa

  • Phyla : Sarcomastigophora

    Microsporidia

    Ciliophora

    Apicomplexa


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PROTOZOA(Unicellular)

  • 1.Amoebae Entamoeba histolytica

  • 2.Flagellates Giardia lamblia

    Trichomonas vaginalis

    Leishmania donovani

    Trypanosoma cruzi

    3.Sporozoa Plasmodium Spp.

    Toxoplasma gondii

    4.Ciliates Balantidium coli


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CLASSIFICATION

  • Kingdom : Animalia

  • Subkingdom : Metazoa

Phylum:

Nemathelminthes

Phylum:

Platyhelminthes

Class:Trematoda

(Flukes)

Class: Nematoda

(Round worms)

Class:Cestoda

(Tape worms)


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HELMINTHS(Multicellular)

  • 1.Trematodes Fasciola Spp.

    Schistosoma Spp.

    2.Cestodes Taenia Spp.

    Echinococcus Spp.

    3.Nematodes Round worm

    Hook worm


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MODES OF INFECTION

1.INGESTION

a.Contaminated soil&water

b.Fresh water fish/water cress

c.Crab&crayfish

d.Raw&undercooked pork/Beef


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MODES OF INFECTION

2. INOCULATION

a.blood sucking insects

b.skin penetration by larval forms

3.SEXUAL TRANSMISSION

4. INHALATION

5. VERTICAL TRANSMISSION

6.AUTO INFECTION


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LIFE CYCLE

  • The sequential stages in growth,development, and multiplication of a parasite constitute its life cycle.

  • Simple with one host involved

  • Complex with more than one hosts(2-3).


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PARASITES WITH SIMPLE LIFE CYCLE

  • No intermediate hosts:

  • Protozoan parasites Definitive Host

    Entamoeba histolytica Human

    Giardia lamblia Human

    Trichomonas vaginalis Human

    Balantidium coli Pig/Human

    Metazoan parasites

    Ascaris lumbricoides Human

    Enterobius vermicularis Human

    Strongyloides stercoralis Human

    Trichuris trichiura Human





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PATHOGENICITY

  • TRAUMA : S.stercoralis,A.duodenale

  • LYTIC NECROSIS:E.histolytica,Plasmodium Spp.

  • Competition for nutrients:D.latum(Vit.B12)

  • Inflammatory reactions:Hook worm,Malaria,E.histolytica.

  • Allergic manifestations:Schistosomes,T.spiralis

  • Neoplasia :C.sinesis

  • Secondary infections:Stongyloidiasis,trichinosis.


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IMMUNITY

  • IMMUNE RESPONSE TO PARASITIC INFECTIONS HAS FOUR ARMS:

  • Cytotoxic T cells

  • Natural killer (NK) cells

  • Activated macrophages

  • Antibody(produced by B-cells)


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LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS

A.Demonstration of the parasite

B.Immunodiagnosis

C.Molecular biological methods


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Demonstration of parasite

  • Blood : Plasmodium Spp.(RBCs),

    L.donovani(monocytes)

    Trypanosoma cruzi

    Microfilariae(W.bancrofti)

    Stool :Saline mount : Trophozoites: Entamoeba histolytica,Giardia lamblia

    Lugol’s Iodine mount :Cysts : Entamoeba histolytica,Giardia lamblia


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Demonstration of parasite

Eggs:Cestodes : Diphyllobothrium latum,Taenia solium

Trematodes: Schistosomes mansoni

Fasciola hepatica

Nematodes : Trichuris trichiura

Ancylostoma duodenale

LARVAE: Strongyloides stercoralis

Trichinella spiralis


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Demonstration of parasite

ADULT WORMS :

Cestodes : Taenia solium,Diphyllobothrium latum

Nematodes : Ascaris lumbricoides,Enterobius vermicularis.


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URINE

  • Eggs of Schistosoma haematobium

  • Trophozoites of Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti in chylous urine.


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OTHER SPECIMENS

  • Genital specimens: Trichomonas vaginalis

  • Cerebrospinal fluid : Trypomastgotes of Trypanosoma brucei,Naegleria fowleri

  • Sputum : Eggs of Paragonimus westermani

    Migrating larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale

    Tissue biopsy & aspiration:Hydatid cyst

    Trichinella spiralis


Culture animal inoculations l.jpg
CULTURE & ANIMAL INOCULATIONS

  • Entamoeba histolytica

  • Giardia lamblia

  • Leishmania donovani

  • Toxoplasma gondii


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SKIN TESTS

  • 1.Immediate hypersensitivity(Filaria,Ascaris)

  • 2.Delayed hypersensitivity(Leishmania,Trypanosoma)


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IMMUNODIAGNOSIS

  • Serological tests:ELISA,RIA,Indirect haemagglutination test,Indirect fluorescent antibody test,Complement fixation test,Agglutination tests:Direct agglutination,Bentonite flocculation test.

  • Molecular methods: PCR & DNA probes.


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STOOL EXAMINATION

  • SALINE MOUNT

  • IODINE MOUNT

  • CONCENTRATION METHODS


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CONCENTRATION METHODS

  • FLOATATION TECHNIQUE

    Saturated salt floatation

    Zinc sulphate centrifugal floatation

    SEDIMENTATION TECHNIQUE

    Simple sedimentation

    Formalin-ether sedimentation


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QUANTIFICATION OF WORM BURDEN

  • Direct smear egg count

  • Stoll’s method


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ANAL SCRAPINGS AND SWABS

  • Scotch tape method

  • NIH swab

    ENTEROTEST


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f

Trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica

pseudopodia

RBC

nucleus


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Trophozoite of Entamoeba histolytica

pseudopodia

RBC

nucleus


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Ovum of Taenia solium

embryophore

hooklets

Outer

shell

onchosphere


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Cyst of Giardia lamblia

nucleii

axostyle

cyst wall


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Ovum of Nectar americanus

Hyaline sheath

blastomere



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Ovum of Ascaris lumbricoides

Outer mamillated layer

Unsegmented ovum


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Ova Of Trichuris trichiura

Mucus plug

Unsegmented ovum


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