cultural geography

cultural geography PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Culture. Culture: shared set of meanings that are lived through the material and symbolic practices of everyday life3 elements: that we have invented and passed on to subsequent generations Ideas:Language, music, belief systems, and moral and gender codesMaterialsLiving and inert items that humans use: clothing, houses, office buildings, factories, domesticated plants and animals etc.InstitutionsFormal and informal associations that help us get along togetherFormal: religious orga24

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cultural geography

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1. Cultural Geography

3. Culture Cultural traits: A single aspect of the routine practices of a particular cultural group e.g., Sikhs can be identified by their turbans, beards, or steel bracelets on their right wrists May not be unique to one group Prohibition on eating pork is shared by Muslims and Jews Combination of traits is a cultural complex

4. Culture and cultural groups Culture easily defined broadly but difficult to tie down Cultural Group People with shared identity, beliefs, a way of life, and often same territory Still difficult e.g., Sikh farmer in the Punjab Sikh lawyer in London How much truly in common?

5. Cultural Regions/Landscape The direct and indirect expression of culture on the landscape forms the CULTURAL LANDSCAPE Seen in agricultural patterns, settlement patterns, architectural form and various other changes that we have made to the natural environment

6. Religion

7. 4 major religions

8. Islam Islam Emerges 7th century Rapidly spreads (and unifies the Arabian Pensinula) Continues to spread beyond Saudi Arabia Iran (Persia) North Africa Spain Eastern Europe Pakistan South East Asia ~One billion (1/6 of world population) adherents

9. Islam

10. Islam Islam=“Submission” to the will of Allah Allah is the Arabic word for God. Muslim=“one who submits” Archangel Gabriel reveals the principles of the religion to the Prophet Muhammad

11. Islam Muslim belief Allah begins to reveal himself To Adam, Abraham, Moses & others (Old Testament) Jesus, John the Baptist (New Testament) Muhammad (ultimate revelation) Muslims see a direct linkage between the peoples of the holy book (Bible) and Islam But Islam is the correct religion because Ultimate revelation

12. Islam 3 theological “foundations” Qur’an: revelations from Archangel Gabriel to Muhammad i.e., words of God Hadith: Muhammad’s words 9th century: Scholars codify into six recognized collections of tradition Accounts of Muhammad’s deeds Sunna: ‘the beaten path’ or custom of Islam

13. Islam 5 central principles Belief in Allah As the only God and Muhammad as his prophet Daily prayer Dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, evening Public calls to prayer from the Mosque

14. Islam Fasting (Ramadan) Fast from sunrise to sunset for one month each year No food or water Purpose: Purification and family/community Iftar: Breaking the fast Exceptions: for sick, traveling –may substitute days

15. North Africa and Southwest Asia Charity (Zakat) At least 2.5% of wealth to be given to the ppor Progressive –higher % if wealthy Based on the recognition of the injustice of economic inequity Pilgrimage (Hajj) Mecca -- birth place of Muhammad Medina – site of Muhammad’s Mosque and burial place Note: Jerusalem also holy to Muslims Where Muhammad ascended into Heaven

16. North Africa and Southwest Asia Shar’ia Islamic religious law Guides life according to the Qur’an Some Muslims believe no other law is necessary Islam does not recognize a separation of religion and the state Some Islamic countries are Theocratic (Government controlled by religious authority) States e.g., Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, Iran Other Islamic countries are secular e.g., Egypt, Morocco, Iraq, Turkey, Tunisia Great diversity of practices and observation in Islamic Countries

17. North Africa and Southwest Asia Two major groups of Muslims Division goes back to death of Muhammad in 632 and who should be the successor Sunni (~90%) Clerics choose who succeeds Muhammad Shia (Shi’ite) (10%) Blood relative to succeed Ali, Muhammad’s son in law Geography of: see next slide. Conflict and cooperation, Intermarriage, mixed tribal groups, mixed regions

19. Islam Islamic Fundamentalism Object to Western Culture: Liberalization of women’s roles Globalization of western culture Open sexuality, consumerism, hedonism, economic inequality undermining important Islamic values Family, community Seek reaffirmation of traditional values

20. Islam Most Muslims share this view: (3 groups) Moderates: Some contradictions here also Elements of western culture also “consumed” in Islamic countries—especially by moderate Muslims Fundamentalists: strict interpretation of Qur’an Simple, prayerful life Focus on family, community Traditional gender roles and respect for elderly Insolate themselves from the West

21. Islam Islamists: Violent revolution against All powerful and insensitive West Islamists Greatest threat to the stability of the Middle East? Only country overthrown by Islamists was (arguably) Iran But significant presence in a number of countries (e.g., Egypt, Algeria, Iraq, Afghanistan Were traditionally “nationally focused” Metastized into global movement with Al-Qaida and arguably Iraq.

22. Islamism and conflict Complex issues Not all Islamic “terrorists” are Islamists Terrorist versus Freedom Fighter Who chooses the label? State sponsored terrorism? Terror as tactic

23. Islam Attractiveness of Islamist philosophy for violent overthrow Economic and Political Injustice in these countries Recruits: young urban men from poor neighborhoods descendents of displaced farmers and nomads Refugees from various conflicts Living in crowded, polluted, chaotic conditions in largest cities Don’t believe in their governments See their governments being helped by the U.S.

24. Islam Attractiveness of Islamist philosophy for violent overthrow Economic and Political Injustice in these countries Leaders Educated Disenfranchised politically/economically unless they go along with the system Frustrated with inability to fix the system

25. Islamism --Philosophy Poor conditions in Arab world because Governments have moved away from Islam Governments have become secular West hates Islam You have moved away from Islam Return to Islam Return to the “Glory Days” when Islam was a major influence in Global Affairs Corruption will disappear Life will be good You will be respected Need to destroy the West because the West doesn’t want this to happen

26. Hinduism Hinduism a way of life a religious belief 900m adherents 800m in India Broad range of beliefs Little tradition Rooted in one region and linked to localized folk traditions Great Tradition Classic central beliefs

27. Hinduism Great Traditions based on combination of: Harappa people Original inhabitants ~ 4,500bc Arya ~ 1,500 B.C. 1st invaders Texts written in ancient sanskrit

28. Most Hindu’s worship a number of gods and goddesses But some difference between Shiva Creator and destroyer of universe Vishnu Preserver of universe

29. Hindu concepts of Divinity Somewhat flexible “all gods are merely illusory manifestations of the ultimate divinity which is formless and infinite” Some very devout Hindus don’t worship any gods for this reason

30. 4 central tenets Belief in reincarnation If you desire the illusionary pleasures (and pains) of life you will be reborn after you die Inevitability of a hierarchical life and afterlife Rigid social structure defined through the caste system

31. Hinduism Goodness of holy men and their rejection of material things All creatures are ranked with human on the top One’s condition in life (plant animal, human) is determined by Karma Deeds done in previous lives

32. Caste Humans are divided into Castes: System for dividing society into hereditary hierarchal classes One is born into a given subcaste (jati) and that largely defines one’s experience for life Where you will live Where and with whom you can eat and drink With whom you will socialize Who you marry Type of job If one conforms to the prescribed social and ritual duties and observes the rules of conduct for the assigned caste Better chance of promotion to a higher caste in the next life

33. A caste Represents a group of Jati’s tied together by a set of associated characteristics Jati’s Often linked to particular places Eg., village, neighborhood (often with a particular language or dialect) Segregated “Higher caste” Jati’s will not be ritually polluted by sharing water or food.

34. Castes Brahmins Priestly caste ; most privileged in rituals Must conform to “ritually purer practices (e.g., strict vegetarianism) Kshatriyas Warriors and rulers

35. Vaishyas landowning farmers and merchants Sudras Low status laborers and artisans Harijans (Dalits) Untouchables (technically considered so low as to not be a caste) Do the “dirty work”; killing animals, tanning hides, sweeping and cleaning

36. Caste Caste is different from class Ie., class differences within caste groups Just because you are lower caste doesn’t mean you are poor Often is the case, however Caste: banned from 1947 constitution Affirmative action programs Increase participation of lower castes in higher education Places set aside in parliament for lower castes Slowing declining as a force in society Especially in cities were people can separate from their ancestral Jati Bustees Slum (immigrant) neighborhoods in Cities that have strong Jati identity

37. Buddhism Founded in 6th century BC in part as a rejection of Hinduism Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha (enlightened one) A moral philosophy offers an explanation for evil and human suffering Rather than a formal religion

38. Buddhism 4 noble truths Existence involves suffering Suffering is the result of desire Pain ceases when desire is destroyed The destruction of desire comes through knowledge of correct behavior and thoughts

39. Buddhism Also maintains the concept of Karma Ultimate goal: Nirvana a condition of perfect enlightenment and the cessation of successive rebirths Buddhist missionaries instructed to carry his message but open to all castes, creeds, and peoples

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