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City Making “How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”

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City Making


“How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”

“Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building.

The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities.

Cities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic. How can you know what to try with traffic until you know how the city itself works, and whatelse it needs to do with its streets? You can't.”

Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities , 1961


Traditional --Great Internal Circulation

Conventional -- Poor or no Internal Circulation


Principles


Future Growth Area - Salinas

General Plan


Circulation


Open Space


Town Centers


Neighborhood

Centers, Schools


DOWNTOWN

Freeway

Investment

moves to

Investment

moves to

SHOPPING

CENTERS

Corridor

STRIP CORRIDOR

Courtesy of Michael Freedman


Falling out of Favor: Linear Strip format


The Illustrative Plan (above) is the result of this planning process; it shows the hypothetical buildout of the corridor, locating building footprints (new

and existing), open space, and parking areas. The corridor was divided into four study areas, the Western Gateway, the Neighborhood Center, the Village Center, and the Town Center. Each area has it’s own unique characteristics and challenges which were addressed.

Quick sketches were done to study buildings that would result from the hypothetical building footprints in the Illustrative Plan, combined with the proposed height limits in the study areas and potential architectural regulations of the new code. each street, which corresponds to written code regulations.


Pre-existing Zoning – retail permitted

Plan the corridor retail as part of a supportable city & regionalhierarchy of centers

Supportable Pattern of Centers

Pre-existing Zoning – residential permitter

Courtesy of Michael Freedman

New Pattern of Centers & Segments


Real Centers are nodes of accessibility


Real Centers are Walkable

$5-15/ sq ft

$25-50/ sq ft


Burnaby, British Columbia


High Gate Village - Former Strip Mall


Burnaby, British Columbia


Connectivity


N

400

Roswell, Georgia

3,260 miles of roads

Hardscrabble Rd.

Houze Rd.

Hembree Rd.

Crabapple Rd.

Crossville Rd.

Alpharetta Hwy.

Woodstock Rd.

Pine Grove Rd.

Old Ala Rd.

Holcomb Bridge Rd.

Marietta Hwy.

Azalea

Riverside Rd.


N

400

Roswell, Georgia

3,260 miles of roads

760 miles connect

Only 22% of roads are doing the heavy lifting

Hardscrabble Rd.

Houze Rd.

Hembree Rd.

Crabapple Rd.

Crossville Rd.

Alpharetta Hwy.

Woodstock Rd.

Pine Grove Rd.

Old Ala Rd.

Holcomb Bridge Rd.

Marietta Hwy.

Azalea

Riverside Rd.


Meriam Park, Chico, California


Lee Rd.

K Mart

Solana Ave.

Orlando Avenue

Winter Park

Vo Tech

Webster Ave.

Winter Park

Village

Denning Dr.


Lee Road Extension

Mixed Use Redevelopment

Lee Rd.

K Mart

Orlando Avenue

Webster Ave.

Winter Park

Village

Residential Redevelopment

W.P.V. Development

Denning Dr.


Infill Mixed Use

Vacant lots and under-used spaces become active centers

New and added “eyes” on our important parks, corners and principle streets.

Attractive new features and a way to pay for upgrades to our intersections

Great new convenient places to have coffee or simply hang out in a quasi public-private place


Davis, California


Taming our Roads


Canada

Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.

Highway 93, Missoula, Montana

USA


Narrow Lanes and Safety

"Unlike previous papers, Noland's is not a localized study or one reflecting unusual roadway types. It is specific to collectors, and it applies to all roads of this category throughout the US.

Noland states bluntly,

'as more arterial and collector lane widths are increased up to 12 ft or more, traffic fatalities and injuries increase....’

These results are quite stunning as it is general practice to 'improve' the safety of roads by increasing lane widths.‘

Evidence that showed narrowing traffic lanes reduce motorist speeds. The journal Accident Analysis and Prevention (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00014575) has this article 'In-Press.'


U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida


U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida


U.S. A-1-A Ft Lauderdale, Florida


Bicycling


Bridgeport Way, University Place, Washington

January, 2005

Dan Burden, Glatting Jackson and Walkable Communities, Inc.


1800 vehicles

per hour

per lane

  • vehicles per hour

  • Per lane

Road Diets


Espanola Way, circa 1986

Before and After

© Citizen Planner Institute


South Beach, Florida Ocean Drive


Integrated Transportation Strategy

The transportation system needs to be planned as an integrated system, where all forms of transportation are taken into account when designing transportation corridors.


Integrated Transport Strategy for Tauranga

The planning of the transportation system needs to recognize and integrate with land use planning, open space planning and urban design being undertaken

in the city.


Healthy streets provide the best opportunity to sustain property value (traffic calmed neighborhoods increase property values), which increases tax base to sustain high quality government services, including emergency response.


Pacific Boulevard, Vancouver, B.C.


Road Diets


Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida

Five to Two lane conversion


Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida


9 Feet

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida


3 Meters

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida – Former 3-lane, One-Way

3 meter travel lanes


6 Meters

Olive Avenue, West Palm Beach, Florida – Former 3-lane, One-Way

Three meter travel lanes


Lake Washington Boulevard

Kirkland, Washington

ADT 21,000 (Peaked at 29,000)


Olympia, Washington (School Crossing) – Former 4-lane


This:

One less travel lane; bike lanes; parallel to back-in diagonal parking on one side; new pavement

This 5-lane Main Street was converted to…

Pottstown PA


34% Reduction

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet

1 crash every 2.5 days

1 crash every 4.2 days

(146 per yr)

(87 per yr)

  • Crash Rate declined by 34 percent

  • Injury Rate declined by 68 percent


Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet


23% Increase

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet


30% Increase

Edgewater Drive: Impact of Road Diet


3 crash types can be reduced by goingfrom 4 to 3 lanes: 1 – rear enders

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


3 crash types can be reduced by goingfrom 4 to 3 lanes: 2 – side swipes

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


3 crash types can be reduced by goingfrom 4 to 3 lanes: 3 – left turn/broadside

X

Designing for Pedestrian Safety – Road Diets


Road Diets in Seattle(4 to 3 lanes)


Benefits

Motorist:Safety 25- 40% improvement

Traffic moves with greater uniformity

Compact intersections more efficient

Greater cost savings

Turns are easier

Senior friendly (as motorists)

Others:

Senior friendly (as pedestrians)

Supports transit, walking and bicycling

Emergency response friendly

Increased property values (and tax base)

Community economic develeopment


Toronto, Ontario, Canada Former 4-Lane Road

Multiple Benefits:

More green

Higher property values

Reduced crashes

More bike lanes

Lower speeds

Safer crossings

Increased beauty

Lower noise

More parking

More friendly

Lower pollution


California Street, Mountain View, California


Speed reductions of 3-7 mph are common

Hartford, Connecticut


Security


Well Designed Density

What are the problems here?

Urban-Advantage.com

Lack of Security

Auto dependence

Lack of people

No place to buy a popsicle

Lack of investment

Lack of diversity

Lack of diversity

Lack of activity


Safety


Piikoi Street, Honolulu, HI Modified Intersection

Reduced construction cost

Increased maintenance cost


There are now roundabouts at more than 90 schools nationwide. This is up from zero in 1990. There have been no serious injuries reported in these 18 years.


Crossings


101 Feet

La Mesa, California


Boulder, Colorado Price: $15-25,000


Intersections


Gridley, California:State Highway 99 looking north


Gulf Drive (State Highway) Bradenton Beach, Florida


Tauranga, NZ


The Gift of Density

Low

Moderate


Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4 units/acre to over 20 units/acre

Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density can reduce Vehicle Trips

7-10 du/a

Vehicle Trips

2-3 du/a

20 du/a

Walking Trips

11-18 du/a

6-7 du/a

Source: John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club


Vancouver now has so much density that there is no comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.

Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields, industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all former single family homes are still in place. Loved, cared for, and worth a heck of a lot of money.

As Vancouver has built itself into the one city in the “Most Livable City in the World” …Vehicle Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car ownership is also declining.


8-10 du/a net

11-12 du/a net


Land Value (Mixed Use $25-35/ sq foot)


Walk Audit


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