Chapter 9 System of Documentation 4A 9210033A Sharon 9310031A Ken 9310053A Jamie. 4.03 APA Style. In APA journals, legal materials are given in the reference list, not in text footnotes.
Chapter 9System of Documentation
Rev. ed revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
n.d. no date
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
4.04 Order of References in the Reference List country because they are well known for publishing. (e.g., Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York)
ex: MacArthur precede McAllister
ex: DeBase precedes De Vries
ex: Helmhotz, H. L. F. von
Order of several works by the same first author and if a prefix is part of the surname, treat the prefix as part of the last name, but don’t forget to alphabetize it.
When ordering several works by the same first author, give the author’s name by the follow rules.
ex: Hewiett, L. S. (1996).
Hewiett, L. S. (1999).
Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (2000).
Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (2001).
ex: Alleyne, R. L. (2001).
Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (1999).
ex: Gosling, J. R., Jerald, K., & Belfar, S. F. (2000).
Gosling, J. R., & Tevlin, D. F. (1999).
Hayward, D., Firsching, A., &Brown, J. (1999).
Hayward, D., Firsching, A., & Smigel, J. (1999).
ex: Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control….
Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of….
ex: Mathur, A. L., & Wallton, J. (1999).
Mathur, S. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1998).
Order of works with group authors or with no authors. same surname.
ex: American Psychological Association, but not APA
ex: I-Shou University, Department of Applied English
4.05 References Included in a Meta-Analysis same surname.
Integrate the studies alphabetically within the references section in order to conserve journal pages, and identify each by adding asterisk in the front.
Bandura, A. J. (1977). Social learning theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
*Bretschneider, J. G., & McCoy, N. L. (1968). Sexual interest and behavior in healthy 80- to 102-year olds. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 343-350.
Introduction to APA Reference Style same surname.
4.07 General Forms
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, xxx- xxx.
Author, A. A. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.
Electronic sources include aggregate databases, online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgroups, Web- or e-mail-based discussion group, and Web- or e-mail-based newsletters.
4.08 Author monographs, manuals, and audiovisual media.
ex: Bulatao, E. (with Winford, C. A.)
ex: Robbins, J. K.. Wrong
Periodical: parentheses to enclose the abbreviation Ed. Or Eds. after the last editor’s name.
Kernis,M. H.,Cornell, D. P.,Berry,A.,& Harlow,T. (1993). There’s more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social psychology, 65, 1190-1204.
Robinson, D. N.(Ed.).(1992).Social discourse and moral judgment. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
4.09 Publication Date parentheses to enclose the abbreviation Ed. Or Eds. after the last editor’s name.
4.10 Title of Article or Chapter of the meeting, separate by a comma and enclose in parentheses. Ex: (1993, June)
Periodical: of the meeting, separate by a comma and enclose in parentheses. Ex: (1993, June)
Deutsch, F. M., Lussier, J. B., & Servis, L. J.(1993). Husbands at home: Predictors of paternal participation in childcare and housework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1154-1166.
O’Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men’s and women’s gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.
4.11 Title of Work and Publication Information: of the meeting, separate by a comma and enclose in parentheses. Ex: (1993, June)
Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (1993). Sexual strategies theory: An evolutionary perspective on human mating. Psychological, Review, 100, 204-232.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Beyond the melting pot. Time, 135, 28-31.
4.12 Title of Work: Nonperiodicals of the meeting, separate by a comma and enclose in parentheses. Ex: (1993, June)
Saxe, G. B. (1991). Cultural and cognitive development: Studies in mathematical understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
4.13 Title of Work: Part of a Nonperiodical (Book Chapters) treat series and volume titles as a two-part title.
Book title with parenthetical information: before the surname of the last author.
4.14 Publication Information: Nonperiodicals before the surname of the last author.
4.15 Retrieval Information: Electronic Sources intelligible.
A. Periodicals information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.
Elements of a reference to a periodical information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.
Herman, L. M., Kuczaj, S.A., III, & Holder, M. D. (1993).
Responses to anomalous gestural sequences by a
language-trained dolphin: Evidence for processing of
semantic relations and syntactic information. Journal
of Experimental Psychology: General, 122, 184-194.
Article author:Herman, L. M., Kuczaj, S.A., III, &
Holder, M. D.
Date of publication:(1993).
Article title:Responses to anomalous gestural sequences by a
language-trained dolphin: Evidence for processing of
semantic relations and syntactic information.
˙ information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.Capitalize only the first word of the title and of the
subtitle; if any, and any proper noun; don’t
italicizethe title or place quotation marks around it.
˙ information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.Enclose nonroutine information that is important for identification and retrieval in brackets immediately after the article title.
Berkowitz, A. D. (2000, November 24). How to
tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter to
the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education,
˙Finish the element with a period
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 122,
1. Journal article, one author
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative
pleasure of consequences. Psychological
Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the
hiring process in organizations. Consulting
Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,
Saywitz, K. J.,Mannarino, A. P.,Berloner, L., &
Cohen, J. A. (2000). Treatment for sexually
abused children and adolescents. American
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J.,
Coatsworht, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An
experimental evaluation of theory-based mother
and mother-child programs for children of
divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology, 68, 843-856.
˙ et al. indicate the remaining authors of the article
˙ Parenthetical citation (Wolchik et al.)
Zuckerman, M., & Kieffer, S. C. (in press). Race
differences in face-ism: Does facial prominence
imply dominance? Journal of Personality and
˙ in press paper has been submitted to a journal
and accepted for publication
˙Without writing a year, volume, or page numbers before publication (Zuckerman & Kieffer, in press)
6. information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.Magazine article
Kandel, E. R., & Squire, L. R. (2000, November 10).
Neuroscience: Breaking down scientific
barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science,
Brown, L. S. (1993, Spring). Antidomination training as
a central component of diversity in clinical
psychology education. The Clinical Psychologist,
˙Give the volume number46
The new health-care lexicon. (1993,
August/September). Copy Editor, 4, 1-2.
˙alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title “new”
˙use short title (full title if it’s short) for the parenthetical citation
(“The new health-care lexicon,”1993).
˙ Give the volume number 4
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from
heart failure (1993, July 15). The Washington
Post, p. A12.
˙alphabetize works with no author by the first significant word in the title “New”
˙use short title for the parenthetical citation
(“New Drug,” 1993)
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects
economic, social status. The Washington post,
pp. A1, A4.
˙If a article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.
pp. A1, A4 or pp. B1, B3, B5-B7
Berkowitz, A. D. (2000,November 24). How to
tackle the problem of student drinking[Letter
to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher
Education, p. B20.
˙Letter to the editor (LTTE or LTE)
a letter sent to a publication about issues
of concern to its readers.
Usually, letters are intended for publication.
Barlow, D. H. (Ed.). (1999). Diagnoses, dimensions,
and DSM-IV: The science of classification
[Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal
˙ give the editors of the issue and the title of the issue
˙no editor information on how to obtain the cited material, rather than to the material itself.
move the title to the author’s position, before the
year of publication
Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science
of classification [Special issue]. (1999). Journal of
˙Alphabetize the all reference by the first significant word in the title
˙use short title for the parenthetical citation
Harris, P. L., & Kavanaugh, R. D. (1993). Young
children’s understanding of pretense.
Monographs of the Society for Research in
Child Development, 58(1, Serial No. 231).
˙volume number 58
Battig, W. F., & Montague, W. E. (1969). Category
norms for verbal items in 56 categories: A
replication and extension of the Connecticut
category norms. Journal of Experimental
Psychology Monographs, 80(3, Pt. 2).
˙supplement or part number in parentheses after the issue number (3, Pt. 2)
Ganster, D. C., Schaubroeck, J. Sime, W. E. &
Mayes, B. T. (1991). The nomological validity
of the Type A personality among employed
adults [Monograph]. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 76, 143-268.
˙description of form [Monograph].
Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L., Fanselow, M. S. &
Butcher, L. L. (1991). MAP-2 expression in
cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent
cortex and hippocampus is altered by
Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society for
Neuroscience Abstracts, 17, 480
˙description of form [Abstract]
Nakazato, K., Shimonaka, Y., & Homma, A. (1992).
Cognitive function of centenarians: The Tokyo
Metropolitan Centenarian Study. Japanese Journal
of Developmental Psychology, 3, 9-16.Abstract
obtained from PsycSCAN: Neuropsychology, 1993,
2 Abstract No. 604.
˙date of secondary is different from the date of the original publication, cite both date and separated by a slash
Nakazato, Shimonaka, and Homma (1992/1993)
Regier, A. A., Narrow, W. E., & Rae, D. S. (1990).
The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: The
epidemiologic catchment area (ECA)
experience. Journal of Psychiatric Research,
24(Suppl. 2), 3-14.
Fiske, S. T. (1993). Social cognition and social
perception.Annual Review of Psychology, 44,
Ising, M. (2000). Intensitätsabhängigkeit evozierter
Potenzial im EEG: Sind impulsive Personen
Augmenter oder Reducer?[Intensity dependence
in event-related EEG potentials: Are impulsive
individuals augmenters or reducers?]. Zeitschrift
für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie,
Stutte, H. (1972). Transcultural child psychiatry.
Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 38(9), 229-231.
Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (as cited in
Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)
Reference list entry:
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller,
M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route
and parallel-distributed-processing approaches.
Psychological Review, 100, 589-608.
B. Books, Brochures, and Book Chapter paginated by issue
Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D. (2001). Family mediation:
Fact, myths, and future prospects. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Book authors:Beck, C. A. J., & Sales, B. D.
Date of publication:(2001).
Book title:Family mediation: Fact, myths, and future
Publication information:Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
23. Book, third edition, Jr. in name
Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R.,Jr.(1987). People
in organizations: An introduction to
organizational behavior(3rd ed.). New York:
Australian Bureau of Statistics.(1991). Estimated
resident population by age and sex in statistical
local areas, New South Wales, June 1990 (No.
3209.1). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory:
Gibbs, J. T., & Huand, L. N.(Eds.).(1991).
Children of color: Psychological interventions
with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary(10th ed.).
(1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.
˙use a short title in place an author name in citation (Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary,1993).
Rosenthal, R. (1987). Meta-analytic procedures for
social research(Rev. ed.). Newburry Park, CA:
Koch, S. (Ed.).(1959-1963).Psychology: A study of
science(Vols. 1-6). New York: McGraw-Hill.
˙in text, use the parenthetical citation
American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
disorders(4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
DSM–III (1980) third edition
DSM–III–R (1987) third edition, revised
DSM–IV (1994) fourth edition
DSM–IV–TR (2000) text revision
Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of
music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1-20).
Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genèse de l’
idée de hasard chez l’enfant[The origin of the
idea of chance in the child]. Paris: Presses
Universitaires de France.
Laplace, p.-S. (1951). A Philosophical essay on
probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory,
Trans.). New York: Dover. (Original work
˙cite the original publication date and the date of the translation (Laplace, 1814/ 1951)
Research and Training Center on Independent
Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and
writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.)
[Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the
fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr.,
P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition:
Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84).
Washington, DC: American Psychological
34. Article or chapter in and edited book, two editors
Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an
adaptive mechanism in human memory. In H. L.
Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties
of memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330).
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Auerbach, J. S.(in press). The origins of narcissism
and narcissistic personality disorder: A
theoretical and empirical reformulation.InJ. M.
Masling & R. F. Bornstein (Eds.), Empirical
studies of psychoanalytic theories: Vol. 4.
Psychoanalytic perspectives in
psychopathology. Washington, DC: American
˙Text, use the parenthetical citation (Auerbach, in press)
Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. (1983). Socialization in
the context of the family: Parent-child
interaction. In P. H. Mussen(Series Ed.)& E. M.
Hetherington(Vol. Ed.),Handbook of child
psychology: Vol. 4. Socialization, Personality,
and social development (4th ed., pp. 1-101).
New York: Wiley.
Davydiv, V. V. (1972). De introductie van het
begrip grootheid in de eerste klas van de
basisschool: Een experimenteel onderzoek
[The introduction of the concept of quantity in
the first grade of the primary school: An
experimental study].In C. F. Van Parreren & J.
A. M. Carpay (Eds.), Sovjetpsychologen aan
het woord (pp. 227-289). Groningen, The
Bergmann, P. G.(1993). Relativity. In The new
encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In J. Strachey
(Ed. &Trans.), The Standard edition of the
complete psychological works of Sigmund
Freud(Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth
Press. (Original work published 1923)
˙in text, use the parenthetical citation
Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piaget’s theory (G.
Gellerier & J. Langer, Trans.). In K. Richardson
& S. Sheldon (Eds.), Cognitive development to
adolescence: A reader (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ:
Erlbaum. (Reprinted from Manual of child
psychology, pp. 703-732, by P.H. Mussen, Ed.,
1970, New York: Wiley)
˙In text, use the parenthetical citation
C. Technical and Research Reports edited book, reprint from another source
Elements of a reference to a report edited book, reprint from another source
Mazzeo, J., Druesne, B., Raffeld, P. C., Checketts. K.T.,
& Muhlstein, A. (1991). Comparability of
computer and paper-and-pencil scores for two
CLEP general examinations (College Board Rep.
No. 91-5). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing
Mattews, K. A, (1985). Assessment of Type A
behavior, anger, and hostility in epidemiologic
studies of cardiovascular disease. In A. M.
Ostfield &E. D. Eaker (Eds.), Measuring
psychological variables in epidemiologic
studies of cardiovascular disease(NIH
Publication No. 85-2270, pp. 153-183).
Washington , DC: U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services.
Broadhurst, R. G., & R.A. (1991). Sex offending
and Recidivism (Tech. Rep. No. 3). Nedlands
Western Australia:University of Western
Australia, Crime Research Centre.
Shuker, R., Openshaw, R., & Soler, J.(Eds.).(1990).
Youth, media, and moral panic in New Zealand
From hooligans to video nasties (Delta
North, New Zealand: Massey University,
Department of Education.
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992,
February). Sources of health insurance and
characteristics of the uninsured(Issue Brief
No. 123). Washington, DC: Author.
D. deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionProceedings of Meetings and Symposia
Example 49: Published proceedings, published contribution to a symposium, article or chapter in an edited book
Deci, E. L., &Ryan, R. M. (1991). A motivational
approach to self: Integration in personality.
In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium
on Motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on
motivation (pp.237- 288). Lincoln: University
of Nebraska Press.
* Proper noun
capitalized the name of the symposium.
Example 50: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionProceeding published regularly
Cynx, J., Williams, H., & Nottebohm, F.
(1992). Hemispheric differences in
avian songdiscrimination〔Abstract〕.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 1372-1375
*If only an abstract of the article appears
in the proceedings insert 〔Abstract〕after
the article title, before the period.
Example 51: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished contribution to a symposium
Lichstein, K. L., Johnson, R. S., Womack, T. D., Dean,
J.E., & Childers, C.K. (1990, June) Relaxation therapy for poly - pharmacy use in elderly insomniacs and noninsomniacs. In T. L.
Rosenthal (Chair), Reducing medication in
geriatric populations. Symposium conducted at
the meeting of the First International Congress
of Behavioral Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.
* Give the month of the symposium.
Example 52: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished paper presented at a meeting
Lanktree, C., & Briere, J. (1991, January).
Early data on the Trauma symptom
Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA.
Example 53: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionPoster session
Ruby, J., & Fulton, C. (1993, June). Beyond reading: Editing software that works. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Scholarly Publishing, Washington, DC.
* Give the month of the meeting.
E. deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionDoctoral Dissertations and Master’s Theses
Example 54: Doctoral dissertation abstracted inDissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained from UMI
Bower, D. L. (1993). Employee assistant
programs supervisory referrals:
Characteristics of referring and
nonreferring supervisors. Dissertation
Abstracts International, 54 (01), 534B.
(UMI No. 9315947)
Example 55: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionDoctoral dissertation abstracted in DAI and obtained from the university
Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference
and mistaken identity: When a witness
misidentifies a familiar but innocent
person from a lineup (Doctoral dissertation,Cornell University, 1990)
Dissertation abstracts International, 51,
Example 56: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished doctoral dissertation
Wilfley, D.E. (1989). International analyses of bulimia: Normal-weight and obese.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
University of Missouri, Columbia.
* If a dissertation does not appear in
DAI use this format.
Example 57: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished master’s thesis, university outside the United Stated
Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers’ participation in family work: Consequences for fathers’ stress and father – child relations. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.
* Give the name of the city which doesn’t
included in the name of the university.
F. deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished Work and Publications of Limited circulation
Example 58: Unpublished manuscript not submitted for publication
Stinson, C., Milbrath, C., Reidbord, S., & Bucci, W. (1992).Thematic segmentation of psychotherapy transcripts for convergent analyses. Unpublished manuscript.
Example 59: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished manuscript with a university cited
Dépret, E. F., & Fiske, S. T. (1993). Perceiving
the powerful: Intriguing individuals versus threatening groups. Unpublished
manuscript, University of Massachusetts
* If the university is located outside the US
identified the country.
Example 60: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionManuscript in progress or submitted for publication but not yet accepted
McIntosh, D. N. (1993). Religion as schema,
with implications for the relation between religion and coping. Manuscript submitted for publication.
* Manuscript submitted don’t give the name of the journal or publisher.
* A manuscript accepted for publication but
not yet published in – press reference.
* Manuscript in preparation for last sentence.
* Use the year of the draft you read.
Example 61: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionUnpublished raw data from study, untitled work
Bordi, F., & LeDoux, J. E. (1993).〔Auditory
response latencies in rat auditory cortex〕.Unpublished raw data.
* Use brackets to indicate the material
is a description of content, not a title.
Example 62: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionPublication of limited circulation
Klombers, N. (Ed.). (1993, Spring). ADAA
Reporter. (Available from the Anxiety
Disorders Association of America, 6000
Executive Boulevard, Suite 513, Rockville
, MD 20852)
* Give a name and address from the
publication can be obtain in parentheses
immediately after the title.
* Give a mailing address if a publication can
obtain via the Web.
G. deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionReviews
Elements of a reference to a review
Mroczek, D. K. (2000). The emerging study of midlife 〔Review of the book Life in the middle: Psychological and social development in middle age〕. ContemporaryPsychology: APA Review of Books, 45, 482-485.
Review author deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection: Mroczek, D.K.
Date of publication: (2000)
Review title: The emerging study of midlife
Medium being reviewed: Review of the book
Work being reviewed: Life in the middle: Psychological and social development in
Periodical title and publication information: Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of
Books, 45, 482-485.
Example 63: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionReview of a book
Schatz, B. R. (2000). Learning by text or
context? 〔Review of the bookThe social
life of information〕. Science, 290, 1304.
* Untitled use the material in brackets
* Identify the type of medium being reviewed
in brackets (book, motion picture, television
Example 64: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionReview of a motion picture
Kraus, S. J. (1992). Visions of psychology: A
video of classic studies 〔Review of the
motion pictureDiscovering Psychology〕.
Contemporary Psychology, 37, 1146-1147.
*Identify the type of medium being reviewed in brackets (book, motion
picture, television program, etc.).
http:// deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionwww.apa.org/
Path to document File name of
* deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionProtocol:
indicate what method a Web browser should use to exchange data with the file server
1. hypertext transfer protocol (http)
2. hypertext transfer protocol secure (https)
3. file transfer protocol (ftp)
* All of the protocol
followed by a colon and two forward slashes
ex: http://www.google.com.tw/ (Google)
ex: http://tw.yahoo.com/ (Yahoo)
not case sensitive
lowercase letters and all punctuation
just copy it and paste it
don’t insert hyphen, break the URL
after a slash or before period
be sure that URL is available
Example 71: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionInternet articles based on a print
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., &Doe, J. (2001).
Role of reference elements in the
selection of resources by psychology
undergraduates 〔Electronic version〕.
Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5,
* Viewed article only in electronic form
add in brackets after the article
VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., &Doe, J. (2001). deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Role of reference elements in the
selection of resources by psychology
undergraduates. Journal of Bibliographic Research, 5, 117-123.
Retrieved October 13, 2001, from
*Articles changed or additional data
and commentaries included
add the date you retrieved the
document and the URL
Example 72: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionArticle in an Internet - only journal
Fredrickson, B. L. (2000,March 7). Cultivating
positive emotions to optimize health and
well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3,
Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20,
2000, from http://journals.apa.org/
Example 73: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionArticle in an Internet - only journal, retrieved via file transfer protocol (ftp)
Crow, T. J. (2000). Did homo sapiens speciate
on the y chromosome? Psycholoquy,11.
Retrieved from http://ftp.princeton.edu/
* Do not need to add the date
example 74: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionArticle in an Internet – only newsletter
Glueckauf, R. L., Whitton, J., Baxter, J., Kain,
J., Vogelgesang, S.,Hudson., et al. (1998,
July). Videocounseling for familiy of rural
teens with epilepsy – Project update.
Telehealth News, 2(2). Retrieved from
* No page number
* The URL should directly link to the article
Nonperiodical documents on the Internet deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Example 75: Multipage document created by
Private organization, no date
Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Health
Community 2000, Task Force on Teen
and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has
time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved
October 5, 2000, from http://www
* Different sections have different URLs
provide the home (entry) page
* n.d. = no date available
Example 76: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionChapter or section in an Internet document
Benton Foundation. (1998, July 7). Barriers to
closing the gap. In Losing ground bit by
bit: Low-income communities in the
information age (Chap. 2). Retrieved from
* Use chapter number or section identified
instead of the place of page number
Example 77: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionStand-alone document, no author identified, no date
GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved
August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc
* No author identified
use the title of the document as the
beginning in the reference
Example 78: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionDocument available on university program or department Web site
Chou, l., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix D.H.
(1993). Technology and education: New
wine in new bottles: Choosing pasts and
imagining educational futures. Retrieved
August 24, 2000, from Columbia University ,Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/
* Identified the host organization before
giving the URL for the document
Technical and research reports deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Example 79: Report from a university, available
on private organization Web site
University of California, San Francisco,
Institute for Health and Aging. (1996,
November). Chronic care in America: A
21st century challenge. Retrieved
September 9, 2000, from the Robert Wood
Johnson Foundation Web site: http://www
* The author is different from the provider
clearly identified in the retrieval statement
Example 80: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionU.S. government report available on government agency Web site, no publication date indicate
United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.).
1997 sourcebook of federal sentencing
statistics. Retrieves December 8,1999,
Example 81: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionReport from a private organization, available on organization Web site
Canarie, Inc. (1997, September 27). Towards a
Canadian health IWAY: Vision,
opportunities and future steps. Retrieved
November 8, 2000, from http://www
Example 82: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionAbstract of a technical report retrieved from university Web site
Kruschke, J. K., & Bradley, A. L. (1995).
Extensions to the delta rule of
associative learning (Indiana University
Cognitive Science Research Report
No. 14). Abstract retrieved October 21,
2000, from http://www.indiana.edu/
* The document is abstract
use Abstract retrieved as beginning of
the retrieved statement
Proceeding of meetings and symposia deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Example 83: Paper presented at a symposium, abstract retrieved from university Web site
Culter, L. D., Frölich, B., & Hanrahan, P. (1997
,January 16). Two-handed direct
manipulation on the responsive
workbench. Paper presents at the1997
Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics.
Abstract retrieved June 12, 2000, from
Example 84: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionPaper presented at a virtual conference
Tan, G., & Lewandowsky, S. (1996). A
comparison of operator trust in humans
versus machines. Paper presented at the
CybErg 96 virtual conference. Retrieved
May 16, 2000, from http://www.curtin
* No geographic location for virtual
and should be retrievable
Example 85: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionMessage posted to a newsgroup
Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing
with sound 〔Msg 1〕. Message posted to
* Author’s full name = Last name + initials
* Follow the date with the subject line of the
message and don’t italicize it
* Use Message posted to before the address
of the newsgroup.
Example 86: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionMessage posted to online forum or discussion group
Simons, D. J. (2000, July 14). New resources
for visual cognition 〔Msg 31〕. Message
posted to http://groups.yahoo.com/
Example 87: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionMessage posted to an electronic mailing list
Hammond, T. (2000, November 20). YAHC:
Handle Parameters, DOI Genres, etc.
Message posted to Ref-Links electronic
mailing list, archived at http://www.doi
* Provide the name of the mailing list
* Provide the address for the archived
version of the message
Example 88: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionElectronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from databases
Borman, W.C., Hanson, M.A., Oppler, S.H.,
Pulakos,E.D., & White, L.A. (1993). Role of
early supervisory experience in supervisor
performance. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved
October 23, 2000, from PsycARTICLES
Example 89: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionDaily newspaper article, electronic version available by search
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting
their emotions, most people flunk out.
New York Times. Retrieved November 21,
2000, from http://www.nytimes.com
Example 90: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionElectronic copy of an abstract obtained from a secondary database
Fournier, M., de Ridder, D., & Bensing, J. (1999)
Optimism and adaptation to multiple
sclerosis: What does optimism mean?
Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303- 326. Abstractretrieved October 23, 2000,
from PsycINFO database
Example 91: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionElectronic version of U.S. government report available by search from GPO Access database (on the Web)
U.S. General Accounting Office. (1997, February).
Telemedicine: Federal strategy is needed to
guide investments (Publication No.
September 15, 2000, from General
Accounting Office Reports Online via GPO
Example 92: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionComputer software
Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester
(Version 4.0) 〔Computer software〕.
Westminster, CA: Psytek Services.
Example 93: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionComputer software and manual available on university Web site
Schwarzer, R. (1989). Statistics software for
meta-analysis 〔Computer software and
manual〕. Retrieved from http://www
* Don’t italicize names of software, programs,
* Have proprietary rights of software
use his/her name as the author
* deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection Don’t use a period between the title and
the bracketed material
identified the source as a computer
program or software manual
Raw data deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collection
Example 94: Data file, available from
National health Interview Survey – Current
health topics: 1991 – Longitudinal study
of aging (Version 4) 〔Data file〕.
Hyattsville, MD: National Center for
* Brackets at the end of the title
give description of the material
Example 95: deposit service, article or chapter in an edited collectionData file, available from NTIS Web site
Department of Health and Human Services,
National Venter for Health Statistics. (1991).
National Health Provider Inventory: Home
health agencies and hospices, 1991 〔Data
file〕. Available from national Technical
Information Service Web site, http://www
* Use Available from
the URL leads to information on how to
obtain the cited material, not material itself