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Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats

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Aquatic Biomes I. Freshwater Habitats A. Lakes and Ponds

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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

profundal


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by temp; epilimnion, metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.

This stimulates decomposition and drives down oxygen concentrations... this excessive productivity distinguishes a eutrophic lake.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Formed by glacial scouring, oxbows, filling of craters, uplift blocking a stream, and natural/anthropogenic damming

The littoral zone is where rooted plants can live; the limnetic zone is deeper water where rooted plants can't live.

There is also habitat subdivison by depth; epilimnion (photic), metalimnion (thermocline), and hypolimnion

Shallow lakes (ponds) have a higher ratio of littoral/limnetic; as such, productivity is high - producing more biomass than the decomposers may be able to breakdown.

This stimulates decomposition and drives down oxygen concentrations... this excessive productivity distinguishes a eutrophic lake.

These eutrophic conditions can be stimulated by the anthropogenic input of nutrients - stimulating productivity above natural levels. - phosphates often a culprit


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communities remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communities remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching

Rooted plants can draw nutrients from the benthos and remobilize it before it leaves the system; particularly phosphorus that can be limiting in freshwater systems. This remobilization can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

Deep lakes have a lower littoral/limnetic ratio; decomposition in the limnetic is limited by the relatively low input of biomass from the littoral zone; oxygen concentrations remain high; water remains clear, and communties remain diverse. These are called oligotrophic systems.

Deep lakes in the temperate zone proceed through a seasonal change in thermal profile.

Lakes accumulate sediment and fill in, with vegetation encroaching

Rooted plants can draw nutrients from the benthos and remobilize it before it leaves the system; particularly phosphorus that can be limiting in freshwater systems. This remobilization can accelerate the eutrophication of lakes.

This pumping action has less impact on a large deep lake.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...

decomposition

nutrient transfer

productivity


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

A. Lakes and Ponds

B. Streams and Rivers

These are dynamic and constantly changing environments

Production and decomposition can be spatially separated...

And we often see downstream succession from "oligotrophic" cold, low productivity streams to "eutrophic", highly productive rivers.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer

- shellfish and benthos are productive


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- shallow and warm

- nutrient rich, from sediment load

- nutrient rich from decomposition

- highly productive

- nursery area for oceanic fish

- storm buffer

- shellfish and benthos are productive

- filter water of impurities


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- mangroves in the tropics


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- estuaries

- salt marsh in temperate


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- coral reefs

- most diverse marine habitat

- dominated by 'reef-building' corals

- nursery area for fish

- storm buffer

- filter water (a little), but more dependent ON clear water

- Zooxanthellae are critical here... the water carries few dissolved nutrients - productivity and diversity is dependent upon photosynthetic symbionts in the coral, itself.


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Aquatic Biomes

I. Freshwater Habitats

II. Marine Habitats

- Upwellings and the open ocean

I mentioned at the end of class that open oceans are "biological deserts" because the source of nutrients (from decomposition at the bottom of the ocean) is a long way from the euphotic zone... so algae are starved of nutrients and productivity is low.

The exception is where, as a consequence of the shape of the ocean basin or surface currents or islands, water from the depths is brought to the surface.... this is called an "upwelling" and it is a local productive area.


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Equator

30 S

Surface currents are offshore, and deep water comes up along the coast to "fill the gap".

This brings nutrients up, and that's why Peru has the worlds largest and most productive anchovy fishery.


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Georges Bank - shallow continental shelf, and the offshore Gulf Stream pulling surface waters offshore


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surface water stripped from island, and deep nutrient-rich water takes its place.

in the photo above, red isn't heat... it is algal productivity.


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surface water stripped from island, and deep nutrient-rich water takes its place.

so upwellings are a strong indication that surface ocean waters are usually starved of nutrients.


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