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Mesopotamia Egypt (3100-500 BC) In General Unification & Politics Absolutism & Pharaoh Ethics & Women’s Status Pyramids & Religion Conc. Key Terms Nile River Papyrus Menes Pharaoh Osirus Isis Horus Ma’at Imhotep Nomarchs. Ancient World (cont.). Rosetta Stone.

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Ancient world cont l.jpg

Mesopotamia

Egypt (3100-500 BC)

In General

Unification & Politics

Absolutism & Pharaoh

Ethics & Women’s Status

Pyramids & Religion

Conc.

Key Terms

Nile River

Papyrus

Menes

Pharaoh

Osirus

Isis

Horus

Ma’at

Imhotep

Nomarchs

Ancient World (cont.)


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Rosetta Stone

Discovered in 1799; deciphered 1822

Included writing in hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek


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Egypt’s Influence On Us Today

Papyrus

  • A new, less clumsy writing tablet:

  • Toothpaste!

  • Ingredients: lead, powdered flint, incense, and honey (ca. 1500 BC)


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The Gift Of The Nile

Most of Egypt is a desert, but the Nile...

  • flooded every year which added nutrients to soil.

  • made the land “livable;” 5-15 miles on either side of the River.

  • created a dependable and efficient transportation system.

In contrast to Mesopotamia’s instability, the Nile provided stability and prosperity to Egypt.


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Unification Brings Prosperity

Egypt was believed to be first unified between 3100-2850 BC by…

Menes

He was also known as Narmer


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Political Unification & Prosperity

From about 3000 BC to 30 BC Egypt = very prosperous

Pyramid Building: the Old Kingdom (ca. 2700-2200 BC)

Later, pharaohs hid tombs in caves


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Royal Absolutism: Pharaoh’s Power

Pharaoh was a god on earth; no separation of church and state—no written law

Smaller tombs were placed near pharaoh’s tomb

Taxes: about 20% of income went to Pharaoh

In return, Pharaoh ensured there would be prosperity (flooding of Nile) & no change

Regional “governors” called Nomarchs served as pharaoh’s representatives at the local level

Yul Brynner as Ramses II (Ten Commandments)


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Pharaoh & Religion/Mythology

Osiris ruled over the kingdom of the dead. Originally a god of fertility, he was murdered by his brother.

  • Osiris was resurrected by his wife Isis who reassembled pieces of his body.

  • Horus was the son of Isis & Osiris. Pharaoh was the incarnation of Horus on earth.

Horus


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Ethics: Pharaoh & Ma’at

Belief: universe was characterized by chaos

To avoid chaos & maintain status quo, Pharaoh enforced Ma’at (outlined ethical behavior); this had to be kept to ensure prosperity

Examples: feeding poor; protection of widows & orphans; treating others with kindness, etc.


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Family Life & Women’s Roles

  • Divorce was rare

  • Women = unique position for Ancient World:

    • Matrilineal descent & inheritance

    • Owned property, engaged in trade, traveled in public

    • Could occasionally became Pharaoh


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Djoser’s Step Pyramid(ca. 2800-2700 BC)

Designed by the engineer Imhotep who later established a school of architecture


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Quick Video Clip

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mce0Hm7h3GY


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Statistics & the Great Pyramid

Built about 2600 BC

About 480 feet high and 750 feet long

Built with 2.3 million limestone blocks

Each block weighed about 2.5 tons

Each block was hand-chiseled to fit in place perfectly

Built with a labor force of about 100,000 men working for 20 years


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Three Feluccas Sailing The Nile(These boats are similar to those used years ago)


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So, why build them?--Religion

Every body held a “ka” or double (soul?) that didn’t die when the body died.

One’s “ka” survived more completely if the flesh was preserved.

Pyramids were tombs for Pharaoh’s “ka” to allow it to be fed, clothed, etc.


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Hieroglyphics From Book Of The Dead


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Sphinx & Great Pyramid(Sphinx was carved from a natural bluff ca. 2500 BC)


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Inside a Tomb

Craftsmen making supplies

Playing a board game

A man grinding grain


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Video Clip

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K2T3fZDiSsw&feature=related



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Mesopotamia

Egypt (3100-500 BC)

In General

Unification & Politics

Absolutism & Pharaoh

Ethics & Women’s Status

Pyramids & Religion

Conc.

Key Terms

Nile River

Papyrus

Menes

Pharaoh

Osirus

Isis

Horus

Ma’at

Imhotep

Nomarchs

Ancient World (cont.)


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