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Affective Computing. Lecture 5: Dr. Mark Brosnan 2 South: [email protected] Picard (1997). Affective Computing: Computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions (p.3) Recognise emotions Express emotions ‘Have’ emotions. Is Mr. Spock intelligent?.

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Affective computing

Affective Computing

Lecture 5:

Dr. Mark Brosnan

2 South: [email protected]


Picard 1997
Picard (1997)

  • Affective Computing: Computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions (p.3)

  • Recognise emotions

  • Express emotions

  • ‘Have’ emotions


Is mr spock intelligent
Is Mr. Spock intelligent?

  • Spock is only rational

  • Descarte’s Error (Damasio, 1994)

  • Elliot searches unlimited search space to make a rational decision

  • Missing ‘somatic markers’ that associate feelings with decisions


Artificial intelligence
Artificial Intelligence?

  • AI is like Elliot

  • Turing Test (1950; French 2000)

  • Jabberwacky.com

  • Emotion is required for artificial intelligence (Hofstadter, 1981)

  • Emotional Intelligence?


Affective communication
Affective communication

  • Social rules extended to computers

  • Media Equation (Reeves and Nass, 1996)

  • Anthropomorphism

  • Mechanomorphism


Recognise emotions
Recognise Emotions

  • Vision to recognise facial expression

  • Multimodal

  • GSR – polygraph

  • Which emotion: happiness, guilt

  • ‘Emotional Turing test’

  • Person dependent

  • Person independent


Criteria for recognition

Input

Pattern recognition

Reasoning

Learning

Bias

Output

Criteria for recognition


Express emotions
Express emotions

  • Kismet (Breazeal and Scassellati, 2002)

  • Emotional expression for communication and social co-ordination

  • Emotion for organisation of behaviour (action selection, attention and learning)

  • Arbib and Fellous (2004)




Criteria for expression

Input

Intentional vs. spontaneous pathways

Feedback

Bias exclusion

Social display rules

Output

Criteria for expression


Have emotions
Have emotions

  • Can machines feel?

  • How would we know?


Criteria for having emotions
Criteria for having emotions

  • System has behaviour that appears to arise from emotions

  • System has fast ‘primary’ emotional responses to certain inputs

  • System can cognitively generate emotions

  • System can have emotional experience

  • System’s emotions interact with other processes (e.g. memory)


Do computers need bodies to have emotions
Do computers need bodies to have emotions?

  • Robot emotions? Arbib (2005)

  • Recognition of own emotion

  • Recognition of other computer’s emotions

  • Consciousness?

  • Real or simulation?

  • Sci Fi: 2001!


Design questions
Design questions

  • 1. Should computers be allowed to keep their emotions from their designers?

  • 2. Should what is considered good and bad be hard-wired or learned?

  • 3. Should a computers mood be affected by others’ moods?

  • 4. Do computers need negative emotions, anger, fear, misery?


Interacting with computers

Interacting with Computers

Special Issue (2002, 14(2))

Affective Computing


Scheirer et al 2002
Scheirer et al. (2002)

  • Frustration

  • Slow computer game

  • Mouse clicking behaviour


Klein and picard 2002
Klein and Picard (2002)

  • This computer responds to user frustration

  • Affect-support agent

  • Text and buttons in a GUI

  • Demonstrate empathy to support user

  • Control 1: Emotions ignored

  • Control 2: Vent frustration


Experiment
Experiment

  • Game 1

  • Agent intervention

  • Game 2

  • Affect support agent lead to greater involvement in longer play with Game 2


Picard and klein 2002
Picard and Klein (2002)

  • Emotion skill needs:

  • Emotional self awareness

  • Manage emotions

  • Self-motivate

  • Affect perception

  • Empathy

  • Experiential emotional needs


Hone 2006
Hone (2006)

  • Empathetic agents more effective

  • Embodied

  • Female embodied agents more effective


Tractinsky 2004
Tractinsky (2004)

  • Affective HCI is difficult to study

  • Affective HCI is hard to do

  • Design interactive technologies that help users help themselves


Muller 2004
Muller (2004)

  • 2 Criticisms:

  • Computers Are Social Actors (CASA)?

  • Other technologies are anthropomorphised too (boats, cars, toys etc)

  • Need to better understand emotions


Artefact
Artefact:

  • Potential course work idea is to analyse the affective nature of a piece of technology

  • Or to investigate agent mediation of affective states

  • Or evaluate the impact of emoticons

  • Frustrate users and see what happens!


References
References:

  • Journals:

  • Interacting with Computers

  • Trends in Cognitive Sciences

  • Both available on line

  • Book:

  • Picard, R. (1997) Affective Computing. MIT Press.


In future
In Future:

  • Develop an understanding of anxiety, specifically computer-related anxiety

  • Develop an understanding of emotion and the neuropsychology of HCI


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