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Juveniles Who Sexually Offend. Gretchen Kubnick Ray Woodruff Wisconsin Department of Corrections Division of Juvenile Corrections High Risk Juvenile Sex Offender Reentry Program. Division of Juvenile Corrections. MISSION

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Juveniles who sexually offend

Juveniles Who Sexually Offend

Gretchen Kubnick

Ray Woodruff

Wisconsin Department of Corrections

Division of Juvenile Corrections

High Risk Juvenile Sex Offender Reentry Program


Division of juvenile corrections
Division of Juvenile Corrections

MISSION

  • To promote a juvenile justice system that balances public protection, youth accountability and competency building for responsible and productive community living.


Division of juvenile corrections1
Division of Juvenile Corrections

VISION

  • We will reduce delinquent behavior and restore a sense of safety to victims and the community.

    - youth accountability

    - partnerships with community

    - public protection


Juvenile sex offenders
Juvenile Sex Offenders

  • 23% of all sexual assaults are committed by juveniles

  • 16% of these juvenile sex offenders were under the age of 12

  • 96% of all sex offenders (adult and juvenile) are male

    (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000)


Juvenile sex offender myths
Juvenile Sex Offender Myths

  • Stranger Danger

  • More Sex Offenders than ever!

  • They’re all Pedophiles

  • Residency Restrictions keep us safe

  • Most will commit more sex offenses


Myth stranger danger
Myth: “Stranger Danger”

  • 93% of child sexual abuse victims know their abuser

    - 34% of offenders were family members

    - 59% of offenders were acquaintances

  • 77% of sexual assaults of children occurs in a residence

    (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000)


Myth more sex offenders than ever
Myth: “More sex offenders than ever”

  • Arrest rates for all sex offenses across the U.S. (including forcible rape and excluding prostitution) have slightly decreased in recent years

    Year# of sex offense arrests

    1997 133,960

    2002 123,354

    2007107,286

    (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States)


Myth they re all pedophiles
Myth: “They’re all Pedophiles”

  • Pedophilia is characterized by “recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children”

  • An individual must be at least 16 years of age to be diagnosed as a pedophile

  • Some juvenile offenders display pedophiliac behaviors, however…

  • Majority of juvenile sex offenders are not pedophiles

  • Access and convenience are factors

  • HOWEVER, preoccupation (and sexual interest) with children can increase the risk for recidivism

    (Miner, 2002) (Worling, & Curwen, 2000)

    (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition)


Myth residency restrictions will keep us safe
Myth: “Residency Restrictions will keep us safe”

  • Research does not support a correlation between sex offender residency restrictions and a reduction in sexual violence

  • Virtual complete lack of evidence to support residence restrictions

  • Residency restrictions may cause instability, pushing offenders away from treatment, social services, and stable employment; all which could lead to re-offending

  • Minnesota – 224 recidivists returned to prison, 0 established contact with child victim near school, daycare, park, etc. within 10 miles of offender’s residence

  • Iowa – sex offense charges and convictions involving children slightly increased in the 2 years following residence restrictions being implemented

    (Levenson, & Hern, 2007) (Levenson, Zgoba, & Tewksbury, 2007)

    (Minnesota Department of Corrections, 2007) (Duwe, Donnay, & Tewksbury, 2008)

    (Iowa Department of Human Rights, 2008) (Kruttschnitt, Uggen, & Shelton, 2000)


Residency restrictions and juvenile registration cont d
Residency Restrictions and Juvenile Registration, cont’d

  • Restrictions could undermine the Registry

    - Within 6 months, Iowa’s non-compliance rate doubled

    - 27 cases for non-compliance in Brown County (9/22/09)

  • Research on juvenile SO registration provides no support for a deterrent effect on juvenile sex offending

  • National Alliance to End Sexual Violence opposes residency restrictions

  • 93% of all child sexual abuse victims already know their abuser

    (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000) (Letourneau et al., 2009)

    (Smith, T., Personal Communication 2009)

    (Levenson, Zgoba, & Tewksbury, 2007)


Myth they will just re offend
Myth: “They will just re-offend”

  • Most studies show that juvenile sexual recidivism rates vary from 4-14%

    Sex Offense

    StudyFollow-upRecidivism Rate

    Caldwell (2007) 5 years 6.8%

    Worling (2000) 2-10 years 5.17%

    Letourneau (2009) 9 years 2.5 – 7.5%

    Rasmussen (1999) 5 years 14.1%

    Vandiver (2006) 3-6 years 4.3%

    Hendriks (2008) 9 years 11%

    Kahn (1991) 20 months 7.5%

    Sample & Bray (2003) 5 years 6.5%

    Parks & Bard (2006) ≤ 134 months 6.4%


Juvenile sex offender recidivism studies
Juvenile Sex Offender Recidivism Studies

  • Higher rates of non-sexual re-offending

    StudyRate

    Worling, & Curwen (2000) 39.6%

    Hendriks (2008) 59%

    Caldwell (2007) 73.9%

    Kahn, & Chambers (1991) 44.8%

    Parks, & Bard (2006) 30.1%

  • Problems with studies:

    - Detection difficulties

    - Small or skewed samples

    - Inadequate procedures

    - Evaluator Error


Risk factors for sexual recidivism
Risk Factors for Sexual Recidivism

  • Higher rates of sexual re-offending is seen in some specific populations

    - Prior sexual offending (#, duration)

    - Stranger victims

    - Two or more victims

    - Deviant sexual arousal (fantasies, preoccupations, behaviors, etc.)

    (Långström, 2002) (Worling & Curwen, 2000)


Juveniles who persist into adulthood
Juveniles Who Persist into Adulthood

  • Low Social Competence

  • High Rates of Antisocial Behavior

  • High Rates of Impulsivity

    (Knight & Prentky, 1993)


Juvenile sex offender characteristics
Juvenile Sex Offender Characteristics

  • Vast majority are male (~95%)

  • Many have suffered some form of abuse (physical or otherwise)

  • Large portion are actually very similar to juvenile non-sexual offenders (general delinquent behavior, truancy, poor social skills, etc.)

  • Points to importance of J-SOAP-II

    (Kahn, & Chambers, 1991)

    (Miner, 2002)

    (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000)


J soap ii
J-SOAP II

  • Empirically-informed assessment guide

  • Used to identify risk & needs

  • Non-sexual offending as well as sexual offending

  • To assist with short-term risk assessment

  • To assist with finding appropriate treatment and case planning

  • No “cut-off” scores or probability estimates


Description of j soap ii juvenile sex offender assessment protocol
Description of J-SOAP II(Juvenile Sex Offender Assessment Protocol)

  • Tool consists of 28 items grouped into four domains or scales

    • Sexual Drive/Sexual Preoccupation

    • Impulse/Antisocial Behavior

    • Intervention

    • Community Stability/Adjustment Scale


J soap ii scales
J-SOAP II Scales

  • Static / Historical Scales

    • Sexual Drive/Preoccupation Scale

    • Impulsive-Antisocial Behavior Scale

  • Dynamic Scales

    • Intervention Scale

    • Community Stability Scale


J soap ii summary form
J-SOAP – II SUMMARY FORM

  • STATIC / HISTORICAL SCALES

  • Sexual Drive/Preoccupation Scale Score: __ /16 = __ Add Items 1-8 (range: 0-16)]

  • Impulsive-Antisocial Behavior Scale Score: __/16 = __

    [Add Items 9-16 (range: 0-16)]

  • DYNAMIC SCALES

  • Intervention Scale Score: __/14 = __

    [Add Items 17 - 23 (range 0-14)]

  • Community Stability Scale Score: __/10 = __

    [Add Items 24 – 28 (range: 0-10)]


When is the j soap ii scored in djc
When is the J-SOAP II Scored in DJC?

  • At intake as part of a comprehensive assessment

  • Post treatment / pre-release from JCI, RCC etc

  • Follow-up Treatment and supervision in community (every 90 days)


Juvenile sex offender treatment in the division of juvenile corrections
Juvenile Sex Offender Treatment in the Division of Juvenile Corrections

  • Assessment

    – MAYSI-2 and J-SOAP II, Clinical Evaluation, Psychosexual Assessments, Psychological Evaluations


Factors to reduce juvenile sexual recidivism
Factors to Reduce Juvenile Sexual Recidivism Corrections

  • Treatment

    - Cooperation with Treatment Process

    - Guilt & Remorse

    - Cognitive Distortions

    - Motivation for Change

    (Worling & Curwen, 2000)

    (Epperson, Personal Communication, 2008)


Sex offender program soar
Sex Offender Program (SOAR) Corrections

  • Enhanced Thinking Skills – Juvenile (ETS-J)

    - cognitive skills program (4-6 months)

  • CORE Component

    - specifically address sexual offending (6-9 months)


Transition to the community
Transition to the Community Corrections

  • Transition Phase begins 90 days prior to release

  • Team consists of Reintegration Social Worker, Inst. Treatment Provider, Field Agent, Community Care Providers, Youth, Parent or Family, Others as appropriate

  • Develop a Transition Case Plan (TCP)


Community supervision
Community Supervision Corrections

  • Post-Release Supervision

    - Aftercare (state or county)

    - Interstate Compact

  • Corrective Sanctions Program - §938.533

    - Electronic monitoring and daily contacts

  • Serious Juvenile Offender Program - §938.538

  • Sex Offender Supervision


Community supervision management
Community Supervision/Management Corrections

  • Re-Assess often (risk & needs of youth)

  • Community programs & Availability to youth/families

  • Work with families (when appropriate)

  • Appropriate levels of supervision with community safety


Sex offender registration as of 9 24 09
Sex Offender Registration Corrections(As of 9/24/09)

  • 91% of registrants are adults

  • Adult Conviction = 19,194

    - Active = 4,846

    - Terminated = 8,656

    - Incarcerated = 5,692

  • Juvenile Adjudication = 1,851

    - Active = 287

    - Terminated = 1,324

    - Incarcerated = 240

  • www.widocoffenders.org


2005 wisconsin act 5
2005 Wisconsin ACT 5 Corrections

  • Authorizes a police chief or sheriff to provide information from the sex offender registry concerning:

    - A registrant who is a child, or a juvenile proceeding in which the registrant (any age) was involved

  • Before ACT 5, this information was always confidential


Act 5
ACT 5 Corrections

  • Information from the sex offender registry may be released to:

    - an organization (including schools, day care providers, government agencies, etc.)

    - an individual

    - the general public

    -IF-

  • The police chief or sheriff determines that doing so is necessary to protect the public


Act 51
ACT 5 Corrections

  • § 301.46(2)(e)

  • Effective date: May 17, 2005

  • Dr. Anna Salter and DOC developed guidelines for law enforcement when deciding on notification

  • Law enforcement is Not Required to release any information about a juvenile on the SOR


Things to think about
Things to think about… Corrections

  • Juvenile sex offenders have lower sexual recidivism rates than adults

  • Treatment has been shown to have a significant impact

  • Research does not support a correlation between sex offender residency restrictions and a reduction in sexual violence

  • We can provide support to juveniles who have sexually offended, while also maintaining community safety

    (Caldwell, 2007)

    (Letourneau et al., 2009)

    (Borduin, 2009)


Questions
Questions? Corrections

  • Division of Juvenile Corrections

  • Gretchen: 608-240-5915

  • Ray: 608-240-5919

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]


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