Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction
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Chapter 1: The History of Engineering Section 1.1 - Introduction. The rate of engineering innovations is ever increasing Studying history provides us with perspective on how innovations progressed, and may give us an insight into future trends.

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Chapter 1: The History of Engineering Section 1.1 - Introduction

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Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.1 - Introduction

The rate of engineering innovations is ever increasing

Studying history provides us with perspective on how innovations progressed, and may give us an insight into future trends.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.1 - Introduction

ABET* Definition of Engineering:

The profession in which knowledge of the mathematical and natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied with judgment to develop ways to use, economically, the materials and forces of nature for the benefit of mankind.

*ABET: Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.1 - Introduction

Key Items within this Definition of Engineering:

  • Knowledge in Math and Sciences very important

  • Knowledge gained from various sources: study, experience and practice

  • Engineering is an applied art and practice

  • Engineering seeks economical solutions

  • Engineering serves to benefit mankind


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.2 – Getting Started

Prehistoric Culture:

Though those living in prehistoric times were isolated from one another, they did demonstrate effective engineering skills:

They designed and built through trial and error

Because of isolation, little information or innovation was ever shared

Great importance placed on respect for life and a sense of the sacred


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.2 – Getting Started

Physical Limitations of Prehistoric Cultures:

  • No written language

  • Limited verbal language

  • No means of transportation

  • No separate concept of education to discover new things

  • Lived by gathering food / hunting with primitive weapons

  • Material aspects of life occurred very slowly


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.3 – The Beginnings of Engineering

Egypt and Mesopotamia

Were focal points for engineering activity between 4000-2000 B.C.

Developments included:

  • Stone tools

  • Copper and Bronze tools

  • Development of plow

  • Invented wheel, sailing boat, methods of writing

  • Constructed massive structures including pyramids


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.4 – An Overview of Ancient Engineering

Covers timeline from 2000 B.C. to the present

Engineering the Temples of Greece

Parthenon-Completed in 438 B.C. (Athens, Greece)

Incorporated the concept of the Golden Rectangle and other subtle harmonies into its design.

The Roman Roads and Aqueducts

Construction began in 312 B.C.

Both involved many sophisticated civil engineering aspects


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.4 – An Overview of Ancient Engineering

The Great Wall of China

  • Construction commissioned in 220 B.C.

  • Modern Wall extends 1,700 miles from north to south

  • Ancient Wall estimated as 3,080 miles long

  • Served as protection from nomadic hordes to the west.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.6 – A Case Study of Two Historic Engineers

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452 – 1519)

  • A true renaissance man

  • Seemed to know everything that was knowable in his time

  • Because he could not read Latin, he was forced to rely solely on his own observations of the world around him as he worked on improving the environment around him.

  • Worked as an artist, sculptor, architect, in addition to engineering.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.6 – A Case Study of Two Historic Engineers

Gutenberg (1394-1468) and his Printing Press

  • He printed the first book, a Bible, in 1455

  • The Printing Press allowed man to use, appreciate and disseminate information as never before

  • China had Printing Press technology as early as the 11th century, but never used it for any form of mass production


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Aerospace Engineering

  • Concerned with engineering applications in both aeronautics (science of air flight) and astronautics (science of space flight)

  • Represents the field of any future interplanetary travel

  • Has traditionally had strong ties to the defense industry


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Agricultural Engineering

  • In 1900, a large percentage of the working population was engaged in agriculture.

  • As technology and engineering were introduced into agriculture, the number of workers involved in agriculture reduced to less than 5%


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

  • ChemicalEngineering

  • One of the newer disciplines, began in late 1910s

    Chemical Engineering Definition:

    Chemical Engineering applies chemistry to industrial processes which change the composition/properties of an original substance for useful purposes.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Civil Engineering

The oldest of all engineering disciplines, dates back to ancient times, though the term “civil engineering” only dates back to early 1700s.

Today’s civil engineers focus on structures, water resources, transportation, the environment, and geotechnical issues, among many others, making Civil Engineering one of the broadest of all engineering branches.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Computer Engineering

  • Combines elements of electrical engineering and computer science into the design of computers and computer components.

  • Computer Engineering is distinguished from Computer Science in that it has a much greater emphasis on the hardware involved in computing


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Electrical Engineering

“The Whole of Electrical Engineering is based on magnetic and electrical phenomenon.-Dunsheath 1962

  • Largest Branch of engineering, employing over 400,000 engineers

  • Specialty areas include electronics, solid-state circuitry, communication systems, computers and automatic control, instrumentation and measurements, power generation/transmission, and industrial applications.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Mechanical Engineering

  • Its importance parallels the rise of the Industrial Revolution that started in the 1700s.

  • Today, Mechanical Engineering produces the highest number of Bachelors of Science degrees each year of all engineering disciplines.


Chapter 1 the history of engineering section 1 1 introduction

Chapter 1: The History of EngineeringSection 1.7 – The History of the Disciplines

Questions to Think About:

  • What new Engineering disciplines have evolved in the last 10 years?

  • What new disciplines will evolve in the next 10-20 years?


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