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The East Asian World. Chapter 9, Sections 1-3. Outline. Rise of Ming Dynasty Zheng He Contact with Europeans Culture/Society Decline of Ming Rise of Qing Dynasty Kangxi European influence Culture/Society Tokugawa Japan European influence Economy and society Korea.

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the east asian world

The East Asian World

Chapter 9, Sections 1-3

outline
Outline
  • Rise of Ming Dynasty
    • Zheng He
    • Contact with Europeans
    • Culture/Society
    • Decline of Ming
  • Rise of Qing Dynasty
    • Kangxi
    • European influence
    • Culture/Society
  • Tokugawa Japan
    • European influence
    • Economy and society
  • Korea
rise of the ming dynasty
Rise of the Ming Dynasty
  • 1368-1644
  • Ruler was Ming Hong Wu, or “Ming Martial Emperor”
  • China grew to include parts of Mongolia, Central Asia, and Vietnam
  • Ming improvements
    • Centralized government
    • School systems
    • Factories for producing goods
    • Public works projects like canals for shipping
    • Introduction of new, easier to produce, crops
exploration and invitation
Exploration and Invitation
  • Voyages of Zheng He
    • Yong Le, son of Ming Hong Wu, begins voyages into Indian Ocean
    • Made an enormous profit through trade…but some did not agree with trade
      • Confucius ideas condemned it
    • Voyages halted following Yong Le’s death (1424)
  • Contact with Europeans
    • Portuguese arrive in 1514, first contact since Marco Polo
      • Brought Christian missionaries
      • Exchange of ideas was biggest gain (no trade)
    • Chinese saw themselves as superior to European “barbarians”
fall of the ming dynasty
Fall of the Ming Dynasty
  • Problems within the empire
    • Weak rulers, high taxes, and poor crop production all led to a downfall
    • Disease epidemic also killed thousands
  • Li Zicheng’speasant revolt
    • Sparked by epidemic
    • Capital city of Beijing taken in 1644
    • Fighting over who would rule China ensued
rise of the qing dynasty
Rise of the Qing Dynasty
  • Manchu Dynasty
    • Came from Manchuria, area northeast of the Great Wall
      • Made up 1% of Chinese population
    • Conquered Zicheng’s army, taking control of China
  • Qing adaptations
    • All Chinese men had to shave heads and braid their hair into a pigtail called a queue
    • The Manchu people were made “distinct” from all other people
      • Most were made nobles
      • Some were made banners, the chief Chinese fighting force
    • Chose to share power with the Chinese
      • 80% of government jobs owned by Chinese
slide7

Qing economy

    • Popularity of artwork like blue and white porcelain grows
    • Growth in business and jobs
      • Higher population and food production
    • Did not see commercial capitalism, or private business based off profit, we see in Europe
      • Government controlled business
      • Agricultural jobs still the biggest employer
reign of kangxi
Reign of Kangxi
  • Kangxi’s rule
    • 1661-1722
    • Ruled for longest period in the history of China
  • Expansion
    • Stopped revolts within China
    • Gained territories in Taiwan, Vietnam, Russia, Mongolia, & Tibet
  • Religion
    • 1692 – Issues Edict of Toleration allowing worship of Christianity, as well as missionaries
      • Christians split on issue of ancestor worship
    • 1715 – Pope condemns ancestor worship in China
      • Kangxiforbades missionaries, says they cause trouble
role of europeans
Role of Europeans
  • Qianlong
    • Ruled 1736-1795
    • Weak ruler, corruption grows in China
  • White Lotus Rebellion
    • 1796-1804
    • Launched in response to high taxes, weak rule, corruption
    • Rebellion is stopped, but at great cost to Qing dynasty
  • European interference
    • See moment of weakness as opportunity
    • Chinese allow trade, but under strict rules
    • British request more open trade with the Chinese
      • Told the Chinese do not need the British or their manufacturers
family life
Family Life
  • The Chinese family
    • Society revolves around the family
    • Individuals sacrificed their desires for benefit of family
    • Extended family – grandparents, parents, children, and children’s spouses under same roof
    • Clan – Up to hundreds of families sharing religious and social activities
  • Role of women
    • Inferior to men
    • Could not be educated
    • Could not divorce or inherit property
    • If they did not produce a son, a second wife could be picked up
tokugawa japan
Tokugawa Japan
  • Rise
    • 250 separate territories called hans
    • Daimyo, or heads of noble families, ruled and controlled their own lands
      • Controlled by a hostage system in which their families are held under shogunate custody
    • Late 1500s, 3 leaders emerged to change this
  • OdaNobunga
    • Seized the capital, Kyoto, and began the change
  • ToyotomiHideyoshi
    • Inherited power from Oda
    • Persuaded many daimyo to surrender power
  • Tokugawa Ieyasu
    • Inherited power from Toyotomi
    • Took complete control of Japan, creating central authority and beginning the “Great Peace”
european influence
European Influence
  • Portuguese arrive in 1543
    • Want to capitalize on Japanese trade with China
  • Goods
    • Japanese impressed with European goods
    • Use guns to conquer enemies
  • Religion
    • Francis Xavier is first missionary
    • Thousands converted
  • Kicking out Europeans
    • Christian practice of destroying shrines upsets Japanese, Europeans booted
    • A small Dutch community is allowed to remain and trade
economy and society
Economy and Society
  • Trade
    • Like Chinese, Japanese reluctant to trade (Confucius)
    • Tokugawa rule encourages trade
  • Class System
    • 4 classes
      • Warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants
      • Below these are the eta, or Japanese outcasts
    • Marriage between classes is forbidden
  • Role of Women
    • Parents arranged marriages, wife moved in with husband’s family
    • Valued for role of child bearers and homemakers
  • Culture
    • Literature, theater, and art grew in popularity and importance
korea
Korea
  • Yi Dynasty
  • Rulers patterned their economy and society after the Chinese
  • Because of isolation, Korea known as “the Hermit Kingdom”
  • 1630s – After being weakened by Japanese invaders, Koreans are conquered by Chinese
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