The east asian world
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The East Asian World. Chapter 9, Sections 1-3. Outline. Rise of Ming Dynasty Zheng He Contact with Europeans Culture/Society Decline of Ming Rise of Qing Dynasty Kangxi European influence Culture/Society Tokugawa Japan European influence Economy and society Korea.

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The East Asian World

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The east asian world

The East Asian World

Chapter 9, Sections 1-3


Outline

Outline

  • Rise of Ming Dynasty

    • Zheng He

    • Contact with Europeans

    • Culture/Society

    • Decline of Ming

  • Rise of Qing Dynasty

    • Kangxi

    • European influence

    • Culture/Society

  • Tokugawa Japan

    • European influence

    • Economy and society

  • Korea


Rise of the ming dynasty

Rise of the Ming Dynasty

  • 1368-1644

  • Ruler was Ming Hong Wu, or “Ming Martial Emperor”

  • China grew to include parts of Mongolia, Central Asia, and Vietnam

  • Ming improvements

    • Centralized government

    • School systems

    • Factories for producing goods

    • Public works projects like canals for shipping

    • Introduction of new, easier to produce, crops


Exploration and invitation

Exploration and Invitation

  • Voyages of Zheng He

    • Yong Le, son of Ming Hong Wu, begins voyages into Indian Ocean

    • Made an enormous profit through trade…but some did not agree with trade

      • Confucius ideas condemned it

    • Voyages halted following Yong Le’s death (1424)

  • Contact with Europeans

    • Portuguese arrive in 1514, first contact since Marco Polo

      • Brought Christian missionaries

      • Exchange of ideas was biggest gain (no trade)

    • Chinese saw themselves as superior to European “barbarians”


Fall of the ming dynasty

Fall of the Ming Dynasty

  • Problems within the empire

    • Weak rulers, high taxes, and poor crop production all led to a downfall

    • Disease epidemic also killed thousands

  • Li Zicheng’speasant revolt

    • Sparked by epidemic

    • Capital city of Beijing taken in 1644

    • Fighting over who would rule China ensued


Rise of the qing dynasty

Rise of the Qing Dynasty

  • Manchu Dynasty

    • Came from Manchuria, area northeast of the Great Wall

      • Made up 1% of Chinese population

    • Conquered Zicheng’s army, taking control of China

  • Qing adaptations

    • All Chinese men had to shave heads and braid their hair into a pigtail called a queue

    • The Manchu people were made “distinct” from all other people

      • Most were made nobles

      • Some were made banners, the chief Chinese fighting force

    • Chose to share power with the Chinese

      • 80% of government jobs owned by Chinese


The east asian world

  • Qing economy

    • Popularity of artwork like blue and white porcelain grows

    • Growth in business and jobs

      • Higher population and food production

    • Did not see commercial capitalism, or private business based off profit, we see in Europe

      • Government controlled business

      • Agricultural jobs still the biggest employer


Reign of kangxi

Reign of Kangxi

  • Kangxi’s rule

    • 1661-1722

    • Ruled for longest period in the history of China

  • Expansion

    • Stopped revolts within China

    • Gained territories in Taiwan, Vietnam, Russia, Mongolia, & Tibet

  • Religion

    • 1692 – Issues Edict of Toleration allowing worship of Christianity, as well as missionaries

      • Christians split on issue of ancestor worship

    • 1715 – Pope condemns ancestor worship in China

      • Kangxiforbades missionaries, says they cause trouble


Role of europeans

Role of Europeans

  • Qianlong

    • Ruled 1736-1795

    • Weak ruler, corruption grows in China

  • White Lotus Rebellion

    • 1796-1804

    • Launched in response to high taxes, weak rule, corruption

    • Rebellion is stopped, but at great cost to Qing dynasty

  • European interference

    • See moment of weakness as opportunity

    • Chinese allow trade, but under strict rules

    • British request more open trade with the Chinese

      • Told the Chinese do not need the British or their manufacturers


Family life

Family Life

  • The Chinese family

    • Society revolves around the family

    • Individuals sacrificed their desires for benefit of family

    • Extended family – grandparents, parents, children, and children’s spouses under same roof

    • Clan – Up to hundreds of families sharing religious and social activities

  • Role of women

    • Inferior to men

    • Could not be educated

    • Could not divorce or inherit property

    • If they did not produce a son, a second wife could be picked up


Tokugawa japan

Tokugawa Japan

  • Rise

    • 250 separate territories called hans

    • Daimyo, or heads of noble families, ruled and controlled their own lands

      • Controlled by a hostage system in which their families are held under shogunate custody

    • Late 1500s, 3 leaders emerged to change this

  • OdaNobunga

    • Seized the capital, Kyoto, and began the change

  • ToyotomiHideyoshi

    • Inherited power from Oda

    • Persuaded many daimyo to surrender power

  • Tokugawa Ieyasu

    • Inherited power from Toyotomi

    • Took complete control of Japan, creating central authority and beginning the “Great Peace”


European influence

European Influence

  • Portuguese arrive in 1543

    • Want to capitalize on Japanese trade with China

  • Goods

    • Japanese impressed with European goods

    • Use guns to conquer enemies

  • Religion

    • Francis Xavier is first missionary

    • Thousands converted

  • Kicking out Europeans

    • Christian practice of destroying shrines upsets Japanese, Europeans booted

    • A small Dutch community is allowed to remain and trade


Economy and society

Economy and Society

  • Trade

    • Like Chinese, Japanese reluctant to trade (Confucius)

    • Tokugawa rule encourages trade

  • Class System

    • 4 classes

      • Warriors, peasants, artisans, and merchants

      • Below these are the eta, or Japanese outcasts

    • Marriage between classes is forbidden

  • Role of Women

    • Parents arranged marriages, wife moved in with husband’s family

    • Valued for role of child bearers and homemakers

  • Culture

    • Literature, theater, and art grew in popularity and importance


Korea

Korea

  • Yi Dynasty

  • Rulers patterned their economy and society after the Chinese

  • Because of isolation, Korea known as “the Hermit Kingdom”

  • 1630s – After being weakened by Japanese invaders, Koreans are conquered by Chinese


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