COMMERCIAL FIBERS. Distribution of Strength. Glass Fibers. E : E lectric C : C hemical S : High S trength. Molecular Structure of Glass. Amorphous Non-crystalline. Process of Spinning Glass Fibers. Carbon and Graphite Fibers. Process to Manufacture Carbon Fibers.
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E : Electric
C : Chemical
S : High Strength
Wettability ― the extent to which a liquid will spread over a solid surface
By 1st law of thermodynamics:
Work done = Increment in free energy
Where γ= free energy per unit area of liquid – gas interface
= force per unit length
= surface tension
The necessary condition for spreading of the liquid
Define spreading coefficient
no wetting is possible
epoxy – alumina:
wetting is possible!
epoxy – polyethylene:
No wetting is possible!
By force equilibrium (at the stop liquid front on solid)
surface roughness ― interlocking or keying
normal compression force ― thermal contraction
coulombic force ― short range of interaction
polymers― intertwining of molecules
metals― intermetallic compounds