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COMMERCIAL FIBERS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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COMMERCIAL FIBERS. Distribution of Strength. Glass Fibers. E : E lectric C : C hemical S : High S trength. Molecular Structure of Glass. Amorphous Non-crystalline. Process of Spinning Glass Fibers. Carbon and Graphite Fibers. Process to Manufacture Carbon Fibers.

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Presentation Transcript
glass fibers
Glass Fibers

E : Electric

C : Chemical

S : High Strength

molecular structure of glass
Molecular Structure of Glass



characteristics of aramid fiber
Characteristics of Aramid Fiber
    • glass transition temperature 360C
    • can be used at 300C for a limited time
  • low CTE (-410-6K-1)
  • low electrical and thermal conductivity, high thermal capacity
reinforcement matrix interface
Reinforcement – Matrix Interface
  • Strong interface ― high strength & stiffness, low resistance to fracture
  • Weak interface ― low strength & stiffness, high resistance to fracture

Wettability ― the extent to which a liquid will spread over a solid surface

Lotus Effect

surface tension
Surface Tension

By 1st law of thermodynamics:

Work done = Increment in free energy

Where γ= free energy per unit area of liquid – gas interface

= force per unit length

= surface tension

spreading coefficient
Spreading Coefficient

The necessary condition for spreading of the liquid

Define spreading coefficient

wetting occurs

no wetting is possible

example of wetting prediction
Example of wetting prediction


liquid: epoxy

Solids:  alumina

 polyethylene

epoxy – alumina:

wetting is possible!

epoxy – polyethylene:

No wetting is possible!

contact angle




Contact Angle

By force equilibrium (at the stop liquid front on solid)

mechanisms of interfacial bonding
Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding
  • mechanical bonding :

surface roughness ― interlocking or keying

normal compression force ― thermal contraction

mechanisms of interfacial bonding1
Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding
  • Electrostatic bonding :

coulombic force ― short range of interaction

  • Chemical bonding : secondary bonding
mechanisms of interfacial bonding2
Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding
  • Chemical bonding : secondary bonding
mechanisms of interfacial bonding3
Mechanisms of Interfacial Bonding
  • Reaction or interdiffusion bonding :

polymers― intertwining of molecules

ceramics― interphase

metals― intermetallic compounds

methods for measuring bond strength1
Methods for measuring bond strength
  • Bulk specimen tests
  • Three-point bend - short-beam bend test interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) test
  • Iosipescu shear test