National Park Service U. S. Forest Service Bureau of Land Management U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Problem Statement. Problem Statement.
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National Park Service
U. S. Forest Service
Bureau of Land Management
U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service
Decades of research and monitoring results confirm natural resources on federally managed lands in California are being adversely impacted by ozone air pollution.
Chlorosis- bleaching or yellowing of pigment
Stipple - accumulations of pigment; often small dots; visible on upper leaf surface
Fleck - cell death in palisade layer; visible only on upper surface
Bi-facial necrosis - cell death in palisade and spongy mesophyll; visible on both surfaces
Visible Ozone Injury Symptoms
Ozone damage on giant sequoia seedling
Ozone damaged ponderosa pine (left)
PhysiologicalEffects of Ozone
Plants are more sensitive than humans to ozone.
Air quality standards are not protective of vegetation.
Injury vs. Exposure
Sierra and Sequoia NF FPM Plots
None Slight Moderate Severe Very Severe
Primary Causes of Tree DeathSierra and Sequoia National Forests (1977 – 2000)
FPM Ozone Trend Plots
Primary Cause of Death
Percent of Dead Trees
Bark beetles, wood borers 27.9
Fire damage 15.4
Broken top 9.6
Dwarf mistletoe 5.8
The extent and severity of ozone damage to federal natural resources in California is in conflict with Congressional direction to FLMs to sustain healthy ecosystems.
“National Forests are ecosystems and their management for goods and services requires an awareness and consideration of the interrelationships among plants, animals, soil, water, air, and other environmental factors within such ecosystems.”
NEPA Documentation process
PSD Permit Review
Collaboration with Research and Regulatory Agencies
FIA Ozone Bio-
in California –
(Red dots are
positive for ozone)
The FLM agencies have been working to develop nationally consistent criteria and guidance to evaluate air pollution impacts to natural resources on all Federal lands. Initial criteria and guidance is published in the FLAG Phase I Report:
We hope to build off of the FLAG effort by working together to inform regulators and the public of the serious threat of ozone pollution to our Federal natural resources in California.
Current 1 hr ozone standard
non-attainment areas in CA
Proposed new 8 hr ozone non-attainment areas in CA
(State and EPA)