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Post-War America. Chapter 36. Essential Question. How did the events of WWII help facilitate the onset of the Cold War and influence American foreign policy throughout most of the 20 th Century?. Economic Anxieties. After WWII the economy slumped, many feared a Great Depression, part 2.

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Post war america

Post-War America

Chapter 36


Essential question

Essential Question

  • How did the events of WWII help facilitate the onset of the Cold War and influence American foreign policy throughout most of the 20th Century?


Economic anxieties

Economic Anxieties

  • After WWII the economy slumped, many feared a Great Depression, part 2.

  • Labor Unions saw huge gains during GD.

  • Taft-Hartley Act: 1947, targeted labor unions, outlawed closed shops and forced union leaders to swear anti-communist oaths. Congress overrode Truman’s veto.

  • Congress of Industrial Organizations attempts to unionize south, fail due to fears of racial mixing.


Economic anxieties1

Economic Anxieties

  • Government sells off wartime factories.

  • GI Bill: Prompted by idea of 15 million unemployed soldiers

    • government paid for college, loans for homes and businesses.

    • Greatly affected the postwar period, millions could now afford a better life, and spend $$$.


Gi bill of rights

GI Bill of Rights


From bust to boom

From Bust to Boom

  • US economy surges in late 40s

  • Income quadruples by 60s.

  • US possessed 40% of world’s wealth

  • 60% of US middle class

    • 2 cars in every garage, TV!!!

  • Enabled government to afford welfare programs, become a world leader

  • Woman in conflict: Pop culture image of homemaker vs. working woman


Gdp 1914 to 2004

GDP 1914 to 2004


Why the boom

Why the Boom?

  • GI Bill

  • Defense spending remained high throughout the Cold War

  • New industries: technology, aerospace, plastics

  • Cheap energy: gas readily available, dams and nuclear power provide cheap electricity.

  • Better education = increased production = cheaper prices

  • Farm workers decrease, farm productivity increases


Birth of the sunbelt

Birth of the Sunbelt

  • New job opportunities in South, West lead many to relocate

  • Air conditioning and highways make it more appealing

  • Increased population leads to increased political power (1964-2004 all presidents from Sunbelt)

  • Result = Rustbelt: economically depressed areas in Northeast


Sunbelt

Sunbelt


Rustbelt

Rustbelt


Suburban sprawl

Suburban Sprawl

  • GI Bill + Economic boom = more people to suburbs

  • White Flight = affluent whites to subs, AA to inner cities

  • Federal Housing Administration provides incentives for homeownership

  • Need for quick housing leads to Levittowns ( communities of planned, pre-manufactured, uniform homes)

  • AA often tried to escape poverty by moving to urban areas, followed them. Often refused home loans, increased segregation.


Levittowns

Levittowns


Baby boom

Baby Boom

  • Post war prosperity + 15 million returning soldiers + end of Great Depression = Lots of Babies.

  • US population explodes from 50 million births by 1960!

  • Strain placed on educational system.

  • Advertisers take advantage: toys, food, clothing for this generation.

  • Leads to the “youth culture of 60s.

  • Today: Boomers are close to retirement, strain on Social Security


The b uck stops here

“The Buck Stops Here”

  • President Truman

    • No college, farmer, WWI vet, haberdasher

    • Veteran of Missouri politics

    • Unsure in early days of presidency

    • Became a confidant, strong willed, predictable leader.


Yalta

Yalta

  • Feb 1945; Churchill, Stalin and FDR

  • Agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones (France, UK, US, USSR)

  • Stalin occupies E. Europe, agrees to allow free elections in Poland, Bulgaria, Romania – Lied!

  • USSR agrees to fight Japan 3 months after VE Day

  • FDR agrees to allow USSR to have some Japanese islands and some parts of Chinese Manchuria.


Yalta1

Yalta


American soviet relations

American- Soviet Relations

  • Communism v. Capitalism/ Democracy v. Totalitarianism

  • USSR fears raised when Allies delayed D-Day, placing more pressure on eastern front

  • Atomic weapons, US stop of Lend-lease $ to USSR increase tensions

  • US and USSR both want to lead the world for their respective philosophies


American soviet relations1

American- Soviet Relations

  • Stalin’s Fear: Twice (WWI, WWII) Russia was invaded through Europe

  • Stalin hoped to establish a “sphere of influence” in E Europe by controlling Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Czech., and Hungary)

    • Looked like an empire to US

  • Seeds of the Cold War were sown during WWII.


United nations

United Nations

  • International Monetary Fund: 1944, regulate currency exchange rates.

  • World Bank: loans to war ravaged and 3rd world countries

  • 1945: 50 nations create the UN charter

  • UN Security Council (US, UK, USSR, France, and China) holds greatest power.

  • General Assembly included members form all nations

  • Early success: Peace in Kashmir, guide colonies to independence

  • Failures: taming nuclear proliferation

  • UN also key in the creation of Israel (success or failure?)


Un membership

UN Membership


German problems

German Problems

  • Nuremberg Trials: prosecuted Nazi leaders as war criminals, 13 executed

  • Reparations lesson learned after WWI, very limited reparations applied to Germany post WWII

  • Per Yalta, divided in 4 zones

  • Goal: Rebuild and reunite Germany

  • USSR refused to give up their zone.

  • Iron Curtain: symbolic division of West (capitalism) and East (Communism)


Iron curtain

Iron Curtain


Division of germany

Division of Germany


Division of berlin

Division of Berlin


Berlin airlift

Berlin Airlift

  • The capitol, Berlin, was located within the Soviet zone.

  • Divided, like Germany, it became an island of democracy surrounded by communism

  • 1948: Soviets stop all supplies coming in from ground into West Berlin

  • US airlifts supplies for 1 year until USSR removes blockade

  • Significance: 1st confrontation of Cold War, Shows US resolve to fight communism


Truman doctrine

Truman Doctrine

  • Stalin’s refusal to live up to Yalta promises prompted the US to take a tough stand.

  • Truman Doctrine: pledged US economic support for any nation in danger of falling to communist regimes.

  • 1st used in Greece and Turkey

  • Birthed the policy of containment (don’t let communism spread)

  • Major US policy for the Cold War

  • Divided world into “good and evil”


Marshall plan

Marshall Plan

  • Economies of Western Europe continued to struggle after WWII.

  • Marshall Plan: Give economic aid to these nations 1) To aid in recovery 2) fight communism

  • Billions given to W Europe lead to an economic miracle

  • Lead to the European Union


Marshall plan1

Marshall Plan


A home for the jews

A Home for the Jews

  • Sympathy from the Holocaust lead to a movement to return the Holy Land (Palestine) to the Jews.

  • Truman, US gave their blessing and in 1948 the nation of Israel was created.

  • Vast opposition from Arab neighbors threatened to destroy Israel and their American conspiritors.


Surrounded by a sea of hate

Surrounded by a Sea of Hate


War preparation in peace time

War Preparation in Peace Time

  • National Security Act (1947)

    • Organized military into the Department of Defense

    • Created the National Security Council to advise the president.

    • Creates the Central Intelligence Agency to gather data in foreign nations.

  • Selective Service Act

    • Reestablished in 1948, drafted men during peacetime, continuous draft until 1973


Post war america

NATO

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)

  • Alliance of Western European democracies, US and Canada.

  • Pledged to defend each other

  • “An attack on one is an attack on all”

  • Also consistent with US policy of Containment

  • Still in place today!


Nato membership

NATO Membership


What about japan

What About Japan?

  • US alone reconstructed Japan.

  • Douglas MacArthur lead the process, met little opposition from the Japanese.

  • MacArthur created the Japanese constitution.

  • Japanese economy recovered, soon became one of the world’s mightiest industrial powers.


General douglas macarthur

General Douglas MacArthur


Worst year ever

Worst…..Year…..Ever

  • 1949

  • Chinese nationalist (pro-capitalism) lose a long civil war with communist forces led by Mao Zedong.

    • Containment fails

    • Nationalists retreat to Taiwan

  • USSR successfully develops nuclear weapons.

  • Major setbacks for US in Cold War.


Mao way or the highway

Mao Way, or the Highway


Bigger bombs

Bigger Bombs

  • Americans and Soviets clamored to gain an advantage in the new nuclear arms race.

  • 1952: US creates 1stHydrogen Bomb

    • 1,000 more destructive than Hiroshima

  • 1953: USSR also gets H-Bomb

  • New weapon lead many world wide to fear that a “hot war” between US and USSR would destroy the planet.


2 nd red scare

2nd Red Scare

  • Americans looked inward for someone to blame for communist successes.

  • Fear of Red spies launched loyalty oaths for government employees.

  • Many refused the oath on constitutional grounds, fired.

  • Would the Cold War destroy freedom of speech, thought, and assembly?

  • Was being a communist unconstitutional?

  • House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigated Reds in government and public.


2 nd red scare1

2nd Red Scare

  • Hollywood Ten: Movie producers that were blacklisted for refusal to testify before Congress.

  • In truth, some spies were operating in US, but very few.

  • Alger Hiss: connected to Communist party in 30s, convicted of perjury.

  • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg: had connections to the Manhattan Project; convicted of espionage, executed

  • Fear spread, libraries were purged of “un-American” books.

  • Led to the rise of Joseph McCarthy (Chap.37)


Rosenbergs

Rosenbergs


Actor ronald reagan testifies before huac

Actor Ronald Reagan Testifies Before HUAC


1948 election

1948 Election

  • Democrats wanted Eisenhower, but he refused.

  • Democrats go with Truman

  • Southern Democrats break away, form DixiecratParty: Strom Thurmond- states’ rights, segregation

  • Progressive Party Reborn under Henry Wallace: New New Deal, Pro-Soviet.

  • Democrats split 3 ways, sure win for Republicans.

  • Rep. nominate Thomas Dewey: sat back, waited for victory


1948 election1

1948 Election

  • Truman gutted-up

  • Made speeches across the nation

  • Likability and down-home charm proved to be the difference

  • Truman = 303, Dewey = 189, Thurmond = 39


Korean war explodes

Korean War Explodes

  • Like Germany, Korea was divided after WWII along the 38th Parallel (USSR in North/ US in South).

  • 1950 North Korea attacked the South.

  • Tested US policy of containment.

  • USSR/China not present at UN, US gets Security Council to approve operation.

  • Douglas MacArthur named UN commander.

  • NSC-68: top secret document, called for US to drastically increase defense spending. Theory: US economy will win Cold War


Progression of korean war

Progression of Korean War

September 1950

November 1950


Progression of korean war1

Progression of Korean War

  • January 1951 – China sends 260,000 troops to aid North Korea


Korea

Korea

  • US/UN Goal: remove Northern troops from South

  • South Korean troops continued North, and US/UN approved MacArthur to fight above the 38th.

  • In late 1950, China came to the aid of the North.

  • Overwhelming numbers forced UN troops below 38th

  • Mac wanted to attack China, even suggesting nukes.


Korea1

Korea

  • MacArthur openly spoke out against the President, his boss!

  • Truman fired Mac, who came home to a heroes welcome.

  • Truman’s popularity decreased

  • The Korean stalemate would continue until President Eisenhower signs an armistice.

  • Still in place today


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