Tanzania. A developing nation. Vegetation and wildlife. Once a land of tropical forest and grassland. Deforestation has meant that rainfall has failed and drought has destroyed the food and water supply of thousands of people.
A developing nation
Once a land of tropical forest and grassland.
Deforestation has meant that rainfall has failed and drought has destroyed the food and water supply of thousands of people.
Wildlife has been depleted for game, ivory and food. Serengeti plain and Ngorongorocrater still have antelope, wildebeest, giraffes, zebra, and lions.
Two largest tribal groups are sukama and Nyamwezi, but no group is more than 10% of the population.
120 different tribal groups in Tanzania however there are few tribal tensions. Swahili as the national langauge provides a unifying force.
Long standing India population.
Rural population density is low across most of Tanzania, slightly higher around Mt Kilimanjaro and Lake Malawi.
Dar Es Salaam has 1096000 people and Mwanza 252000.
The total area of the land is 945087 square km. Tanzania has a population density of 27.1 people per sq km. In Tanzania only 20% of people live in cities.
Who gets educated?
How do the majority of the population live?
Many people believe that all tribes have equal access to education, employment and social facilities. The truth is that is not the case. The Masai tribe, have avoided education, and so have a reduced chance for employment and economic growth.
Tanganyika was a German colony from 1885 to 1916 and was controlled by Britain from 1919 until 1961 when it gained independence. It united with Zanzibar in 1964 to form Tanzania.
President Julius Nyerere (1975-85) is highly acclaimed in Africa because of his socialist economic ideals which have affected development throughout the country. He retired voluntarily in a display of one of the few orderly transfers of power in Africa.
Discuss with the person sitting next to you What Tanzania’s population would be like in terms of: Average amount of babies per women/why this is the case.
What kind of pressure would this put on the population?
In Tanzania having children is prestigious or God-given. In 1993 women had 6.8 children on average.
There are now too many for the infrastructure. Forty percent of mothers have had at least one child die.
Services (transport, health, education etc) deteriorate while demand rises.
What are some signs of overpopulation?
Patients at hospitals sleeping on floor or sharing beds. Few receive medicine.
2 million school children sit on classroom floors and have no text books.
34% of children are malnourished.
No money for investments. $300 million annually services debts.
Low investment leads to low employment because there are few new businesses
Low employment leads to urban migration.
Housing stocks grow at 1% whilst population grows at 5 annually
Women, the majority of the agricultural producers, lack technology to increase food production.
What kinds of Agriculture will these people be using?
What percentage of the population will be based on agriculture?
Fertile or Infertile land?
Provides 50% of nations production and employs 82% of workforce.
Half of the farmers grow food for their family only none is for cash sale.
Only 10-15% of land suitable for farming in the north.
A quick reminder on Poverty.
Tanzania one of the most stable African countries having only had 3 presidents in the last 40 years.
Nyerere with his Ujamaa development which ruined much of Tanzania reasons it went pear shaped:
Fuel was provided by the state so mass deforestation occurred.
The state took over marketing of coffee, cotton and sisal hoping to avoid exploitation and corruption.
In the 15 or so years nyerere was president farm production had dropped by a half. Industry was operating at one-third of its capacity and inflation was running at 35-40% and Tanzania owed $2.5 billion.
Life expectancy is 55 for women and 50 for men.
70% of pop are below poverty line.
50% Have access to clean water.
62% Have adequate sanitation.
Infant mortality is 111/1000.
AIDS is decimating the population. In some villages 40% of the adults aged between 20 and 40 have died.
By 1994 there were 75,000 orphaned children. Some hospitals have no money to even test AIDS, and cannot care for all the dying people.
50% Nation are literate.
4% attend high school.
In association with the lack of educational opportunities is a subsequent lack of technological advance. A lack of literacy makes it difficult to spread new ideas. This has lead to a lack of investment and poor management practices has lead to desertification. In one area of Tanzania desertification is occuring at 20,000 hectares annually.
Women do all work but have no say in agriculture.
31% of women are literate compared to 62% of men
Very small percentages have the technology to be able to increase agricultural production.
Best wildlife parks in the world (serengeti, Ngorongoro crater, Mt Kilimanjaro and the ancient spice islands of Zanzibar and Pemba.
There are masses of natural resources but no infrastructure to develop Tanz.
I.E roads are so bad that crops rot whilst they are waiting to be transported.
Extensive mineral deposits of natural gas, coal, iron ore and gemstones which remain to be developed.
Cashews, Cotton, Sisal, Maize, Coffee, Tea and Tobacco are the greatest foreign exchange earners
Soil Type – Tanzania has places with rich volcanic soils but poor climatic conditions. Soils in the centre and west can be sterilised by drought losing fertility, and are washed away easily in sudden downpours or blown away by wind. Soils on the coast and northern areas are fertile.
Landform – Tanzania is elevated, except for low-lying coastal plains which make access to areas difficult. Only 5% of land is useful for agriculture. By excluding a large percentage of the population to farming contributes to disparities within Tanzania. The coastal areas may suffer from monsoon rains, but the ability to grow a variety of crops is much higher.
Rainfall – Rainfall pattern is irregular in central and western areas, sometimes months without rain. The coast has more rain and regular rain. Low rainfall in the central area creates issues of unsafe drinking water as wells can be contaminated.
Location – Tanzania is located between 6˚ - 13˚ south of the equator so has a mainly equatorial climate. This creates issues to do with crop growth and diseases such as malaria which thrive in warm and wet areas.
Tourist areas in the north of Tanzania are located there because of its national parks and geographical features like Kilimanjaro, the Serengeti Plain and the Ngorogoro Crater. Tourism contributes 16% of Tanzania’s GDP. Central and western areas have little tourism so do not benefit in the same way as the north, creating differences in development.
Minerals – Tanzania has minerals (iron, copper and gold) but is still developing the infrastructure to develop them. The government is making progress and mining provides employment. This draws people away from other areas to work in mines creating disparities between areas where infrastructure is developed and areas that are not.
Drought: This Extreme natural event greatly effects the people of Tanzania and is a cause of great inequality. Central and Northern Regions being particularly susceptible to drought.
In 1993 drought occurred and affected Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Kagera and Kigoma. 282,053 people were affected.
In 1999 drought occurred in most parts of Tanzania. 3.9 million people were affected. Government donated 8,800 tones of food whilst donor communities donated 23 billion dollars.
In 1996 Drought occurred in most of Tanzania around 4 million were affected. The major problem area was Monduli (Arusha Region). 48 Dams were created and 115 deep and 54 shallow wells were constructed. About 20000 tonnes of food were given to people 55,600 were offered for sale.
In 1999, 17 regions were affected by drought whereby a total of 1,305,336 were faced with this problem. Nearly 18,000 tonnes of food were given to business men for sale in shortage areas.