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Communism. Soviet Union and Satellite Nations. USSR. Timeline of Communism in the 20 th Century. Communism in the USSR (1917 – 1989). 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990. Communism in China (1949 – present). “Cold War”.

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Timeline of communism in the 20 th century
Timeline of Communism in the 20th Century

Communism in the USSR (1917 – 1989)

1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990

Communism in China (1949 – present)

“Cold War”

Communist Revolution in Russia (1917)

Communist Revolution in China (1949)

1989:

Fall of Communism in the USSR

Vietnam War

1966: China’s “Cultural Revolution”

1950:

Korean War

1989: Tiananmen Square in China


Origins of communism
Origins of Communism

  • Karl Marx: Father of Communism  wrote Communist Manifesto

  • Asked workers (proletariat) of the world to revolt and take control of the “means of production”


Communism1
Communism

  • Socialism: a type of economic system in which gov’t runs the economy for the entire society

  • Communism: socialism with totalitarian dictatorship

  • Marxism: communism with violent radical revolution – CLASS STRUGGLE


Communism comes to russia
Communism comes to Russia

  • Life under the Czar:

  • Too many poor peasants

  • Not enough land or food

  • Hate being involved in WW1


No supplies for the troops (not enough railroads or factories)

X

  • By 1915, many soldiers do not have

or

weapons

ammunition



I FEEL RIGHT AT HOME!

MAMMA’S HAPPY!


Group of nobles
Group of nobles

Prince Felix Yus


Moika palace
moika palace

WELCOME TO MY CRIB !

Prince Felix Yusupov


I’M FEELING OK !


I’M STILL FEELING OK !


BAM !

BAM !

BAM !



BAM !

BOOM !

POW !



I DON’T FEEL SO HOT…



HELP… I’M DROWNING !

!


I’LL BE BACK !


The provisional government
The Provisional Government

  • Czar Nicholas II abdicated (gave up the throne)

  • A moderate temporary gov’t was created


The bolsheviks
The Bolsheviks

  • Name of the Communist Party in Russia

  • Began the Communist Revolution

  • Led by Vladimir Lenin - RADICAL

  • Offered the poor “Bread, land, and peace”


1917 revolution
1917 Revolution

  • Bolsheviks overthrew provisional gov’t

  • Created new Communist nation  USSR


Russian civil war
Russian Civil War

  • Red Army (communists) vs. White Army (supporters of Czar)

  • Red Army won! Killed millions


Cheka secret police
Cheka (secret police)



Lenin s u s s r
Lenin’s U.S.S.R.

  • The U.S.S.R.

  • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – aka “Soviet Union”

“The most striking thing was the utter unexpectedness of it, like a train crash in the night, like a bridge crumbling beneath your feet, like a house falling down”



Russia lost
Russia lost:

  • Most of its land in Europe

  • 32% of its farmland

  • 34% of its population

  • 54% of its industry

89% of its coalmines


  • The Russian banks were all nationalized.

  • Control of the factories was given to the soviets.

  • Private bank accounts were confiscated.

  • The Church's properties (including bank accounts) were seized.

  • Wages were fixed at higher rates than during the war and a shorter, eight-hour working day was introduced.


Decree on land
Decree on Land

Private Property



=

Princess Golitsyn sold homemade pies on the street

Baroness Wrangel sold knitwear

One baroness sold a diamond broach for 5,000 rubles (the cost of a bag of flour)


New economic policy
New Economic Policy

  • Lenin’s plan to help the economy

  • The gov’t would control only major businesses

  • People could control small businesses and earn profit (limited capitalism)


Stalin s u s s r
Stalin’s U.S.S.R.

  • Joseph Stalin: Took over after Lenin’s death

  • Became a brutal dictator


Totalitarian state
Totalitarian State:

  • Only one political party allowed → the Communist Party

  • Controlled all aspects of life

  • Put state concerns ahead of your own


Collectivization
Collectivization

  • Stalin’s plan to improve farming

  • Eliminated small farms – they were “collected” onto large, state-run farms

  • If you refused, you DIED


5 year plan
5-Year Plan

  • Stalin’s plan to industrialize

  • Focused on heavy industry (military, steel, mining, farm machines)

  • Not on consumer goods (things for people’s lives)


Purges
Purges

  • Stalin’s attempt to eliminate anyone that could threaten his control

  • Many government officials were imprisoned or executed



+

=


World war ii
World War II

  • Stalin signed a non-aggression pact with Hitler

  • Germany attacked the USSR → the USSR joined the “Allies”


The cold war
The Cold War

I’ll help fight Japan

and I’ll totally allow

free elections in

Eastern European

countries soon.

Yeah RIGHT

Churchill

Stalin

Roosevelt


Divide it into

4 zones of

occupation


The cold war1
The Cold War

Roots of the Cold War:

  • There was a war of ideas between two sides (U.S. and U.S.S.R.)

  • There was a great deal of mistrust after World War II

  • The way Europe was divided up after WW II caused an uneasy tension


Cold war terms
Cold War Terms:

From Stettin in the Baltic

to Trieste in the Adriatic

an "iron curtain"has descended

across the Continent.

Iron Curtain:name for the imaginary dividing line between the Democratic Western European nations and the Communist East European nations


Cold war terms1
Cold War Terms:

Eastern Bloc:the group of nations – that were communist – in Eastern Europe (behind the “Iron Curtain”)


Communist

“satellites”:Another name for the “Eastern Bloc” nations

Countries that were “controlled” by and near the USSR


The 2 sides
The 2 Sides

N.A.T.O. (North Atlantic

Treaty Organization)

The Warsaw Pact

USA

USSR

Containment – stop the

spread of communism

Marxism – spread

Communism through rev

Market economy

Command economy

Totalitarian

(communist)

Republic


Command economy
Command Economy

“Central Planning”

State-control of production, quotas, distribution All economic decisions made by gov’t

NO private business  only GOV’T ownership



Events of the cold war
Events of the Cold War

  • Marshall Plan / Truman Doctrine:

  • U.S. offered billions of $ to help rebuild European nations after WW2 as long as they were NOT communist


Berlin airlift
Berlin Airlift

You can go,

But I’m not leaving!

Germany should stay weak!


No road travel in or out of West Berlin

Help! We need food! We’re starving!

Eventually, I Hope that Allies will just give up West Berlin to the USSR

  • Communists tried a blockade to force the allies out of Berlin (in East Germany)


No trains or cars?

The Allies Air lift supplies

to West Berlin for 11 months!


Operation little vittles
Operation Little Vittles

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_airlift#Operation_Little_Vittles



Arms race
Arms Race:

a race between 2 “super powers” (U.S. vs. U.S.S.R.) to gather bigger, better and more weapons



Space race
Space Race

  • A race for national pride mostly

  • It began when the Soviets put the first satellite, “Sputnik” into orbit


Berlin wall
Berlin Wall

  • The wall became the symbol of the Cold War

  • The Communists put up a wall to keep East Berliners from escaping to West Berlin


Cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • The Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba






Kennedy USSR to remove the missiles

Khrushchev

nuclear holocaust



Brinksmanship
Brinksmanship USSR to remove the missiles

replaced


By d tente
By USSR to remove the missilesdétente

  • Détente: French noun

    • (a) relaxation of a person;

    • release of a spring,

    • slackening of a rope,

    • easing of relations


A warming of tensions between the u s and the u s s r 1970 s 1980 s
A “warming” of tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s)

Relieves Cold War tension!


President nixon met with the leaders of
President U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s)Nixon met with the leaders of


USSR U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) and China


Ussr and china
USSR U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) and China


Salt i strategic arms limitation talks
SALT I U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s)(Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)


Reduce of icbms and submarine missiles
reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s)


Reduce of icbms and submarine missiles1
reduce # of ICBMs and submarine missiles U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s)


Helsinki accords
Helsinki U.S.S.R. (1970’s – 1980’s) Accords



Fall of the ussr causes
Fall of the USSR - nation CAUSES

  • Changing of the Guard

  • A new, younger generation leader was chosen – Mikhail Gorbechev


Fall of the ussr
FALL OF THE USSR nation

Fall of the Berlin Wall (1989) symbol of the end of the Cold War


Fall of the ussr causes1
Fall of the USSR - nation CAUSES

  • Glasnost:“openness” examples: some freedom of religion and press

  • Perestroika:“restructuring” examples: allow some capitalism


Failure of the economy
Failure of the economy: nation

  • Too much sacrificing “butter for guns” (too much military spending-not consumer!)

  • Perestroika weakened an already poor economy


Challenges to the soviet control of satellite nations
Challenges to the Soviet control of satellite nations nation

It’s time to

break free!

  • Began with workers in Poland

  • Other “Eastern Bloc” nations did the same


Break up of the ussr
Break-up of the USSR nation

  • After seeing Warsaw Pact nations end communism, Soviet citizens wanted the same thing

  • Protests were not stopped and the Republics turned into separate independent nations


Results of the fall of the ussr
Results of the fall of the USSR nation

  • New nations formed:

  • Russia became the largest most important

  • Some of the Republics formed an economic alliance called the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


Results of the fall of the ussr1
Results of the fall of the USSR nation

  • Effects on world communism:other Communist nations suffered (no more support from the U.S.S.R.)

  • Ending of the Cold War: no more U.S.S.R., no more cold war


Russia and neighbors after the fall of communism
Russia and neighbors after the fall of Communism nation

Latvia

Estonia

Lithuania

Belarus

Russia

Ukraine

Georgia

Kazakhstan

Armenia

Uzbekistan

Azerbaijan

Turkmenistan

Kyrgyzstan

Tajikistan


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