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What is the Future of Feed Management? Or Life After the “ P ” Project. C. C. Stallings Professor and Extension Dairy Scientist. Cooperating Partners. Feed Management!.

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What is the future of feed management or life after the p project

What is the Future of Feed Management? Or Life After the “P” Project

C. C. Stallings

Professor and Extension Dairy Scientist



Feed management
Feed Management!

Ration formulation and feed delivery are key components in feed management; the end result is feeding closer to the animals requirements without aversely affecting production or animal health

C. C. Stallings, 2009


Phosphorus excretion in lactating dairy cows grams cow day
Phosphorus Excretion in Lactating Dairy Cows (grams/cow/day)

IntakeUrineFecalTotal

.34% P 91 .3 46 47

.51% P 138 1.6 86 87

.67% P 180 2.3 119 121

Knowlton and Herbein. 2002. Jour. Dairy Sci.


Phosphorus based nutrient management plans
Phosphorus based nutrient management plans

  • P must be considered in the nutrient management plans starting January 1, 2007

  • If fields are low in P content NMP’s can still be N based

  • If fields above a certain threshold then P based plans are needed


Ration costs vs ration p content
Ration Costs vs Ration P Content

Example Ration: Corn Silage, Haylage, Corn,

Cottonseed, SBM, Brewers Grain, DiCal, Ca Carb, Vit, TM


Effect of ration p content on acres needed to dispose of manure
Effect of ration P content on acres needed to dispose of manure

P based nutrient management plans and 50% corn silage and 50% alfalfa

.35%.40%.45%.50%.55%

Ac/100

Cows 107 128 149 170 191

Hanigan and Knowlton, 2006

Proc. Feed Management Cow College


Sources of phosphorus in rations
Sources of Phosphorus in Rations manure

Forages

Grains

Protein Supplements

Byproduct Feeds

Inorganic Mineral Supplements


Strategies to reduce ration phosphorus content
Strategies to reduce ration phosphorus content manure

1. Remove inorganic/supplemental sources

  • Use forages as greater portion of ration dry matter

  • Use low P feeds


Phosphorus content of forages national research council 2001
Phosphorus content of forages manure National Research Council, 2001

Alfalfa hay, immature .31% DM

Alfalfa hay, mature .28

Grass hay, immature .34

Grass hay, mature .26

Barley silage .30

Corn silage .26

Rye silage .42

Pasture, intensively managed .44


Phosphorus content of feeds national research council 2001
Phosphorus content of feeds manure National Research Council, 2001

Barley .39% DM

Corn grain .30

Hominy .65

Cottonseeds, whole .60

Soybeans, whole .60

Soybean, meal .70

Brewers grains, wet .59

Distillers grains .83


P content of high p feeds national research council 2001
P content of manure “high” P feedsNational Research Council, 2001

Corn gluten feed 1.00% DM

Wheat midds 1.02

Cottonseed meal 1.15

Wheat bran 1.18

Fish meal 3.05


P content of low p feeds national research council 2001
P content of manure “low” P feedsNational Research Council, 2001

Citrus pulp .12% DM

Cottonseed hulls .12

Molasses, sugarcane .10

Soybean hulls .17

Sugar beet pulp .09


Herds may 2008 187 herds and 31 271 cows
Herds – May 2008 manure 187 herds and 31,271 cows

  • Intensive Group I – 8 started Jan. ‘06

  • Incentive Group A – 17 started Jan. ‘06

  • Incentive Group B – 30 started March ‘06

  • Incentive Group C – 23 started May ‘06

  • Incentive Group D – 37 started Oct. ‘06

  • Incentive Group E – 40 started May ’07

  • Incentive Group R – 32 rolled from above


Payment
Payment manure

  • There will be a two-tier compensation plan based on the 2001 NRC P requirement

    -less than 105% results in $12 per cow

    -105 to 115% results in $6 per cow

    -115 to 125% results in $3 per cow

  • Greater than 125% results in no payment

  • Maximum payment will be $4,800 for one year or $9,600 for two years if the farm qualifies for both years


Results year 1 160 herds p intake as a of required
Results - Year 1 (160 herds) manure P intake as a % of required

  • Less than 105% - 7% of reports ($12/cow)

  • 105 to 115% - 23% ($6/cow)

  • 115- 125% - 24% ($3/cow)

  • Greater than 125% - 46%


P dm for years 1 and 2 57 herds completing both years
P, % DM for Years 1 and 2 manure 57 herds completing both years

Year 1

Year 2


Some lessons learned
Some lessons learned manure

  • Nutritionists and dairymen are not hesitant to remove inorganic sources of P from rations if P requirements are met

  • Forages and pastures do not always have low levels of P

  • High corn prices appear to have increased the use of high P by-product feeds in 2008

  • Ration modification to select low P feeds is not typically done


Impacts
Impacts manure

  • There have been 160 herds completing enough samplings to receive a yearly summary

  • Over $100,000 of incentive payments has been approved and $118,719 in free forage testing to Virginia dairy farms

  • A reduction of P fed of 2.65 lbs. per cow/year or 32.6 tons yearly was calculated for 24,522 cows in these herds


What is a comprehensive nutrient management plan cnmp
What is a comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP)? manure

A Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) group of conservation practices which helps make sure that both production and natural resource protection goals are achieved.


When is cnmp needed
When is CNMP needed? manure

NRCS requires a CNMP when they provide incentive payments or cost share money to implement conservation practices.


Where does feed management fit
Where does Feed Management fit? manure

Feed Management is a voluntary part of a CNMP.


What role does the nutritionist play
What role does the manure nutritionist play?

A certified nutritionist must write and approve the Feed Management plan.


How are nutritionists certified
How are nutritionists certified? manure

A Memorandum of Understanding (MON) exists between the American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) and NRCS to allow members to be Technical Service Providers (TSP’s) in Feed Management.


How are nutritionists certified1
How are nutritionists certified? manure

To be certified the nutritionist must have proficiency in developing animal diets for Feed Management as defined by NRCS Code 592 in conjunction with passing the Feed Management qualifying exam.


Conclusion
Conclusion manure

Feed Management will continue to be an effective tool in reducing nutrient output in situations where nutrient loading of soils is a problem


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