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Friend-Foe Identification System. Justin Ayvazian Ben Johnson Eric Putney Michael Ruth Advisor: Professor Sandip Kundu. Project Overview and Motivation. Protect military personnel from hijacked friendly vehicles and hostile vehicles masquerading as friendly forces

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friend foe identification system

Friend-Foe Identification System

Justin Ayvazian

Ben Johnson

Eric Putney

Michael Ruth

Advisor: Professor Sandip Kundu

project overview and motivation
Project Overview and Motivation
  • Protect military personnel from hijacked friendly vehicles and hostile vehicles masquerading as friendly forces
    • Reliably and quickly identify ground vehicles
    • Encrypted wireless transmissions for security
    • Password user interface
    • Display information and track vehicles on intuitive GUI
benefits over current and alternative systems
Benefits Over Current and Alternative Systems
  • Simultaneously and quickly handle multiple approaching vehicles
    • Not a data heavy transmission scheme
  • No physical hardware keys
    • Cannot steal the password
  • Data dependent encryption
    • Current system hacked by eavesdroppers
  • Vehicle tracking via GPS
system block diagrams
System Block Diagrams

Gray Blocks: Completed by CDR Red Blocks: Completed by FPR

from cdr
From CDR
  • Completed:
    • RC5 encryption integrated with software
    • Ethernet communication between DE2 Boards
    • User password interface
  • To be Implemented:
    • Integrate GUI and DE2 Boards
    • Bridge Wireless communication between modules
    • Implement GPS hardware
    • Timeout and multi-vehicle handling
      • 802.11 System Simulation Data
updated hardware
Updated Hardware
  • Migration away from USB powered peripherals
    • Most USB products require O/S support for plug and play devices
  • Wireless Communication:
    • Quatech AirborneDirect™ Wireless Ethernet Bridge
    • Demo demonstrates 802.11b wireless connectivity
  • GPS Receiver:
    • San Jose Navigation EB-85A GPS Receiver
    • GPS Evaluation Board
    • RS232 connection for serial communication
gps interfacing
GPS Interfacing
  • GPS Evaluation Board
    • RS-232 connection
  • EB-85A GPS Receiver
    • Geographic Position
      • NMEA Protocol
      • Eight minute Specificity
      • Baud Rate: 38400 bps
    • Changed from Holux GM-210 GPS Receiver
      • Required firmware drivers
gps protocol and interfacing
GPS Protocol and Interfacing
  • GPS Module pushes NMEA sentences to board
    • GGA Sentence: $GPGGA,UTC,Lat,N/S,Lng,E/W,…
    • Comma delimited fields
  • Latitude Data: ddmm.mmmm
  • Longitude Data: dddmm.mmmm
  • Resolution: .0001/60 = 1.67 x 10^-6 degrees
  • GUI: 2 pixels = 1 m = X deg Lat, Y deg Lng
    • Prestore Base GPS, calculate difference in pixels between base and vehicle GPS to draw vehicle on GUI
graphical user interface
Graphical User Interface
  • Issues:
    • Host computer to USB requires Plug-and-Play technology (operating system support)
    • JTAG Blaster only available communication method left for transmitting GPS coordinates to Google API
    • Unable to stream information over JTAG-Blaster
  • Corrections:
    • Custom made GUI
    • Use DE2 VGA protocols to stream to monitor
    • Stand alone system that requires no computer support
wireless communication integration
Wireless Communication Integration
  • AirborneDirect™ Ethernet Bridge
    • Point-to-point wireless communication
    • 802.11 b/g compliant
    • Changed from Quatech WLNG-ET-DP501 WiFi Access Point
      • Incompatible serial connectors for DE2 integration
updated message structure
Updated Message Structure
  • TCP/IP protocol used for packet transmission
    • Each message preceded by unencrypted TCP headers
    • Changed from UDP transmission
      • UDP not used by wireless bridges
  • Each packet payload transmitted will be 64 bits
    • Efficient for RC5 encryption scheme
    • Extra bits (where necessary) are randomly generated white noise for payload obfuscation.
  • Vehicle and base modules will have unique unencrypted IP address for routing and multi-vehicle handling
    • Allows base to throw out received TCP/IP packets not coming from a valid vehicle
    • Additional validation by cross-checking public and private IDs
bandwidth considerations
Bandwidth Considerations
  • Transmitted data packets are 66 bytes
    • 8 byte payloads with 58 bytes of TCP/IP headers
    • Full conversation between vehicle and base is 462 bytes with appended TCP/IP headers
    • Assumes no collisions or lost messages
  • AirborneDirect Ethernet bridges have maximum bandwidth of 11 Mb/s
    • Must compete with all 802.11b devices in area
  • System can theoretically support hundreds of simultaneous conversations
    • Unable to physically test limit due to lack of hardware
fpr team roles
FPR -Team Roles
  • Ben: RC5 encryption module and wireless communication
  • Mike: Packet composition and system implementation
  • Justin: GPS interfacing and system implementation
  • Eric: GUI and system implementation
  • GPS coordinates updated to GUI in real-time
    • Updated GUI scheme, integrated with DE2 Boards
    • Communication between GPS and vehicle module, base module and GUI fully integrated
  • Fully functioning wireless protocol
    • Bridged ad-hoc point-to-point communication
    • Communication and encryption modules completed
  • Password interface and encoding integrated on DE-II
    • 16 binary switches for password value with push button to simulate password submission
    • Password randomization function implemented
    • Multi-Vehicle Lookup Tables completed
  • Timeouts implemented for multi-vehicle handling
experience gained
Experience Gained
  • Classes most useful to this project:
    • ECE 242, ECE 353, ECE 354, ECE 374
  • Software used:
    • Quartus II, Nios II, Wireshark, Visual Studio C++
  • Interactions with the professional engineering community
  • System engineering design process
    • Concept to functional prototype
outcome assessments
Outcome Assessments
  • A:
    • ECE 242 - RC5 encryption algorithm.
    • ECE 353 – Firmware programming and hardware interfacing.
    • ECE 354 - FPGA system programming and NiosII C-based application programming.
    • ECE 374 – Ad-hoc communication scheme implemented with TCP/IP protocol.
  • B:
    • Created a meaningful GUI output simulating GPS coordinates.
    • Simulated base GPS and Vehicle GPS to ensure that the vehicle was displayed in expected location on the GUI.
    • Decomposed NMEA messages to ensure coordinates obtained by the GPS module matched Google Maps
    • Analyzed raw GPS data and compared to previous known results to debug our GUI.
    • Wireshark used to decompose 802.11 packets for ethernet bridge integration and testing.
outcome assessments1
Outcome Assessments
  • C:
    • I
      • Fast and reliable wireless communication up to one mile
      • Multi-Vehicle handling
      • Secure transmission scheme
      • Password interface that will attempt to prevent the vehicle from being able to be hijacked.
    • II
      • Prototype constrained to 100 meter range
      • Limited connection methods to DE2 boards
    • III
      • Developed simplified and secure password system that will prevent hijacked vehicles from being identified as friendly in all but the most extreme scenarios
outcome assessments2
Outcome Assessments
  • D:
    • Justin Ayvazian (EE)
      • GPS unit integration
      • Decomposition of GPS messages and scaling for the GUI.
    • Ben Johnson (CSE)
      • Implementation of RC5 encryption algorithm
      • Configuration and integration of wireless Ethernet bridges.
    • Eric Putney (CSE)
      • System integration
      • Creation and updating of GUI
    • Mike Ruth (CSE)
      • Packet composition and decomposition
      • Creation and analysis of data messages.
    • All members worked together on the code that runs the vehicle and base modules. Each module consists of a state machine that runs and integrates all of the separate components. These state machines were a group effort.
outcome assessments3
Outcome Assessments
  • E:
    • Outputting over the USB blaster would not be possible:
      • Alternative output GUI would need to be developed.
    • Done by designing our own GUI that would output over a VGA cable directly into a monitor.
    • Helped in making our system standalone which improved the system design.
outcome assessments4
Outcome Assessments
  • F:
    • System reliability:
      • Safety of soldiers reliant on system
    • Exclusive testing was required
  • G:
    • Email and phone while apart
    • Vocally while together
outcome assessments5
Outcome Assessments
  • H:
    • Prevention of Vehicle hijackings and bombings
      • Comfortable environment for soldiers and families
    • Negative consequences:
      • Mal-intent, deception, and destruction by terrorist groups
  • I:
    • RC5 Encryption
      • Encryption of wireless transmission data
    • NMEA protocol
      • Proper interfacing with GPS antenna
    • WiFi packet structure
      • Interfacing wireless Ethernet bridges
outcome assessments6
Outcome Assessments
  • J:
    • Safety of soldiers
      • Eliminate threats at checkpoints
      • Saves lives
  • K:
    • Quartus
      • Compilation and Synchronization of DE2 Boards
    • NIOS II
      • C/C++ software implementation
    • Wireshark
      • Network protocol analyzer