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Unit Fifteen Organic Chemistry

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Unit Fifteen Organic Chemistry. Alkenes, Alkynes, Functional Groups and Alcohols. Alkenes and Alkynes. Alkenes – hydrocarbons containing at least one double bond between carbon atoms Alkynes – hydrocarbons containing at least one triple bond between carbon atoms

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alkenes and alkynes
Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Alkenes – hydrocarbons containing at least one double bond between carbon atoms
  • Alkynes – hydrocarbons containing at least one triple bond between carbon atoms
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons – they are not loaded to capacity with hydrogens (alkenes and alkynes)
  • Alkenes formula: CnH2n
  • Alkynes formula: CnH2n-2
alkenes and alkynes1
Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Ethyne (C2H2) is emitted by ripening bananas to send a message to the other bananas to ripen.
  • Ethylene (C2H4) is used to ripen fruit.
  • Why do we put fruit in a paper bag to ripen fruit?
  • How do shippers keep fruit from ripening too soon?
naming alkenes and alkynes
Naming Alkenes and Alkynes
  • Base chain is the longest chain containing the double or triple bond
  • The base ending is –ene for an alkene and –yne for an alkyne
  • Base chain is numbered to give the double or triple bond the lowest possible number
  • A number indicating the location of the double or triple bond is inserted before the base name
functional groups
Functional Groups
  • A characteristic atom or group of atoms
  • A group of organic compounds with the same functional group forms a family
alcohols
Alcohols
  • Organic compounds containing the ―OH functional group
  • General formula is R-OH
  • Naming:
    • Base chain is the longest chain containing the ―OH functional group
    • Base name ends with ―ol
    • Base chain is numbered to give the ―OH the lowest possible number
    • A number indicating the position of the ―OH group is inserted before the base name
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