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CHAPTER 5. MOISTURE, CLOUD FORMATION AND PRECIPITATION. HOMEWORK. READ CHAPTER 5 & 7 COMPLETE AOPA’S WEATHER WISE CEILING AND VISIBILITY COURSE (DUE ON THURSDAY) http://www.aopa.org/asf/online_courses/. Matching pilot record not found. Back to DUAT.com Registration

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Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5

MOISTURE, CLOUD FORMATION AND PRECIPITATION


Homework

HOMEWORK

  • READ CHAPTER 5 & 7

  • COMPLETE AOPA’S WEATHER WISE CEILING AND VISIBILITY COURSE (DUE ON THURSDAY)

  • http://www.aopa.org/asf/online_courses/


Chapter 5 4177636

Matching pilot record not found.

Back to DUAT.com Registration

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Other Users:Other organizations who believe they have a legitimate reason for using the DUAT service should write, Phone, FAX, or E-mail their request to:Matoka Forbes (DUATS COTR)                                               (202) 385-7665Flight Services Program Management, AJR-B21                       [email protected] I Street, Suite 9120 NW                                                 Matoka ForbesWashington, DC 20005                                                          ATO-R DUATS COTR


Chapter 5 4177636

KMWH 171952Z 23023G30KT8SM FEW025 OVC090 06/M06 A2972 RMK AO2 PK WND 22030/1949 SLP073 T00561056 $KMWH 171852Z 20011KT 10SM CLR 03/M04 A2974 RMK AO2 SLP084 T00281044 $KMWH 171752Z 19013G19KT 10SM CLR 01/M05 A2975 RMK AO2 SLP088 T00111050 10017 21017 56010 $KMWH 171652Z 19012G19KT 10SM CLR 01/M05 A2977 RMK AO2 SLP094 T00061050 $KMWH 171552Z 18009KT 10SM CLR M01/M06 A2977 RMK AO2 SLP092 T10111056KMWH 171452Z 18011G18KT 10SM CLR M01/M07 A2978 RMK AO2 SLP098 T10061067 56022 $KMWH 171352Z 19013G23KT 10SM CLR 00/M07 A2981 RMK AO2 SLP105 T00001067 $KMWH 171252Z AUTO 18010KT 10SM CLR M01/M07 A2983 RMK AO2 SLP112 T10111072 $KMWH 171152Z AUTO 19014G21KT 10SM CLR 00/M07 A2985 RMK AO2 SLP119 T00001067 10000 21061 58020 $KMWH 171052Z AUTO 19012KT 10SM CLR M01/M07 A2988 RMK AO2 SLP129 T10061067 $KMWH 170952Z AUTO 19015G22KT 10SM CLR 00/M07 A2989 RMK AO2 SLP135 T00001067 $KMWH 170852Z AUTO 19008KT 10SM CLR M01/M07 A2991 RMK AO2 SLP142 T10111067 58018 $KMWH 170752Z AUTO 17006KT 10SM CLR M04/M08 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP152 T10441078 400111156 $KMWH 170652Z AUTO 16006KT 10SM CLR M06/M09 A2996 RMK AO2 SLP162 T10561089 $KMWH 170552Z AUTO 17006KT 10SM CLR M05/M09 A2997 RMK AO2 SLP166 T10501089 10006 21050 58009 $KMWH 170452Z 18006KT 10SM CLR M03/M08 A2998 RMK AO2 SLP171 T10331083 $KMWH 170352Z 18010KT 10SM BKN070 M02/M08 A2999 RMK AO2 SLP175 T10171078 $KMWH 170252Z 19009KT 10SM SCT095 M01/M08 A2999 RMK AO2 SLP176 T10111083 56006 $KMWH 170152Z 18009KT 10SM CLR M01/M09 A3000 RMK AO2 SLP178 T10111089 $KMWH 170052Z 19009KT 10SM FEW100 M01/M10 A3001 RMK AO2 SLP179 T10061100 $KMWH 162352Z 20012G18KT 10SM OVC085 01/M10 A3001 RMK AO2 SLP180 T00061100 10011 21089 56010 $KMWH 162252Z 19012KT 10SM BKN100 01/M10 A3001 RMK AO2 SLP181 T00061100 $KMWH 162152Z 20005KT 10SM BKN100 M02/M09 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP184 T10171089 $KMWH 162052Z 00000KT 10SM BKN100 M02/M09 A3004 RMK AO2 SLP191 T10221089 58009 $

KMWH 171739Z 1718/1818 20016G25KT P6SM VCSH BKN070 OVC150

FM181500 35016G24KT 1/2SM SN OVC020


Chapter 5 4177636

WINTER STORM WARNINGin effect until Thursday, Jan 19, 4:00 PM

...WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM 4 AM WEDNESDAY TO 4 PM PST THURSDAY...

A WINTER STORM WARNING REMAINS IN EFFECT FROM 4 AM WEDNESDAY TO 4 PM PST THURSDAY.

* SNOW ACCUMULATIONS: FOR THE UPPER COLUMBIA BASIN...THE WATERVILLE PLATEAU...THE WENATCHEE AREA...AND THE LEWISTON AREA...SNOW AMOUNTS OF 4 TO 7 INCHES WILL BE COMMON BY THURSDAY.

* TIMING: HEAVY SNOW IS EXPECTED WEDNESDAY INTO THURSDAY.

* LOCATIONS INCLUDE: MOSES LAKE...EPHRATA...OTHELLO...QUINCY... RITZVILLE...GRAND COULEE... ODESSA...WILBUR...COULEE CITY... WENATCHEE... CHELAN... ENTIAT... CASHMERE...WATERVILLE... MANSFIELD... BADGER MOUNTAIN ROAD

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

A WINTER STORM WARNING MEANS SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF SNOW ARE EXPECTED OR OCCURRING. STRONG WINDS ARE ALSO POSSIBLE. THIS WILL MAKE TRAVEL VERY HAZARDOUS OR IMPOSSIBLE.


Plan for the weather

Plan for the Weather

  • You have control over most of the factors involved with flying, but you have no control over the weather. Good weather or bad weather, you must adapt your flying to it.


Chapter 5 4177636

KMWH 132106Z 00000KT M1/4SM R32R/1000V1600FT FG OVC001 01/01 A2991 RMK AO2KMWH 132052Z 00000KT M1/4SM R32R/1800VP6000FT FG OVC003 00/00 A2992 RMK AO2 SLP144 T00000000 58004KMWH 132011Z 00000KT 1SM R32R/2400VP6000FT BR OVC003 01/01 A2992 RMK AO2KMWH 132003Z 23003KT 1 3/4SM R32R/4000VP6000FT BR OVC005 01/00 A2992 RMK AO2KMWH 131952Z 00000KT 4SM BR OVC005 01/00 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP147 T00060000KMWH 131852Z 00000KT 4SM BR OVC005 00/M01 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP151 T00001006KMWH 131752Z 00000KT 5SM BR OVC007 00/M01 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP149 60002 T00001011 10000 21011 50000KMWH 131652Z 00000KT 5SM BR OVC009 M01/M02 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP152 T10061017KMWH 131552Z 00000KT 6SM BR OVC009 M01/M02 A2994 RMK AO2 SLP154 T10111017KMWH 131452Z 24003KT 7SM OVC009 M01/M02 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP152 60002 T10111017 56030KMWH 131352Z 26005KT 5SM BR OVC009 M01/M02 A2997 RMK AO2 SLP163 T10111017KMWH 131252Z AUTO 27005KT 7SM OVC007 M01/M01 A2997 RMK AO2 UPB02E44FZRAE02 PRESFR SLP166 P0002 T10061011KMWH 131202Z AUTO 29004KT 5SM UP BR BKN009 OVC017 M01/M01 A3001 RMK AO2 UPB02FZRAE02 P0000KMWH 131152Z AUTO 31003KT 5SM -FZRA BR BKN011 OVC017 M01/M01 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP180 P0004 60008 70010 T10061011 11006 21050 58013KMWH 131052Z AUTO 34010KT 6SM -FZRA BR BKN023 OVC036 M01/M02 A3004 RMK AO2 UPE0959FZRAB0959 SLP187 P0004 T10111022KMWH 131044Z AUTO 34009KT 5SM -FZRA BR BKN025 OVC036 M01/M02 A3004 RMK AO2 UPE0959FZRAB0959 P0003KMWH 131005Z AUTO 34009KT 6SM -FZRA BR BKN036 OVC050 M02/M03 A3005 RMK AO2 UPE0959FZRAB0959 P0001KMWH 130952Z AUTO 33008KT 9SM UP FEW036 BKN060 OVC075 M02/M04 A3006 RMK AO2 UPB49 SLP194 P0000 T10221039


Who is brave enough to try

WHO IS BRAVE ENOUGH TO TRY?

  • KMWH 131152Z AUTO 31003KT 5SM -FZRA BR BKN011 OVC017 M01/M01 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP180 P0004 60008 70010 T10061011 11006 21050 58013

  • Hopefully no one!!! –FZRA is a no go for most aircraft especially light training aircraft


Chapter 5 4177636

  • KMWH 131152Z AUTO 31003KT 5SM -FZRA BR BKN011 OVC017 M01/M01 A3002 RMK AO2 SLP180 P0004 60008 70010 T10061011 11006 21050 58013

  • Light freezing rain

  • P0004= hourly precip amount 4/100 of an inch precip.

  • 60008= .8 inches in last 6 hours can also be 3 hours

  • 70010=24 hour precip amount included in 12 UTC =1 inch in last 24 hours

  • T10061011=Temp -6.1 C / DPT -1.1 C

  • 11006= 6 hour max temp = -.6 C

  • 21050= 6 hour minimum temp = -5 C

  • 58013 = 3 hour pressure tendency = 8 is the character of pressure change (need chart = atmospheric pressure now lower than 3 hours ago. Steady or increasing, then decreasing; or decreasing then decreasing more rapidly) with a change of 1.3 hectopascals

  • Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 1 section 12 (search FMH-1)

  • http://www.ofcm.gov/fmh-1/pdf/L-CH12.pdf


Clouds precip

CLOUDS & PRECIP.

  • Clouds and precipitation can obscure surface features and other aircraft. They can envelope high ground and may be associated with severe turbulence and ice formation.

  • Clouds form when water vapour gas condenses into liquid water droplets or sublimates into ice crystals


Water vapor

WATER VAPOR

  • Water Vapor is invisible just as oxygen.


Water vapor1

WATER VAPOR

  • Two commonly used terms to express the amount of water vapor in the air are

  • Relative Humidity and

  • Specific Humidity.


Definitions

DEFINITIONS

  • Relative Humidity = expressed as a % of actual water vapor present to that which could be present

  • If a given volume of air is cooled to some specific temp., it can hold no more water vapor than is actually present, relative humidity becomes 100% or saturated


Definitions1

DEFINITIONS

  • Specific Humidity =The ratio, by weight, of the water vapor in a sample of air to the combined weight of the water vapor and the dry air.


Type of clouds precip

Type of Clouds/Precip.

  • The extent and type of cloud and precipitation produced will depend on the amount of water vapour available, the abundance of nuclei, stability of the air and the amount of cooling that the air undergoes.


Definitions2

DEFINITIONS

  • Dew Point Temperature = is the temperature to which air must be cooled to become saturated.

  • The higher the temp the more moisture it can hold

  • So, for the air to become saturated, either

  • 1. Cool the Temp, 2. Raise the Humidity


Dew point relative humidity

DEW POINT/RELATIVE HUMIDITY


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Temp/Dew Point Temp spread is 2ºC (4 ºF) and narrowing condensation/ fog/low clouds should be expected.

  • Water vapor must condense for fog to form. If there are no condensation nuclei present then even with 100% relative humidity, fog will not form.

  • Salt, dust combustion by products, smoke are all classified as condensation nuclei


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Fog is a surface based cloud composed of either water droplets or ice crystals.

  • Less than 5/8 S.M. vis = FG

  • 5/8 S.M. or more = BR

  • With the right conditions fog can form very quickly (few minutes) VFR-IFR.

  • Be very cautious flying when the temp/ D.P.T. spread is close and getting closer.

  • Fog or a cloud may form: by cooling air to its dew point, by adding moisture to the air or condensation nuclei.


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Several different types of fog:

  • Radiation Fog = Fog that forms on a clear calm night or day break when the surface of the earth is cooled by radiation until the temperature of the air near the the surface is below its initial dew point temp. Restricted to land because water surfaces cool little from nighttime radiation. Usually burns off rapidly after sunrise.


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Advection Fog = forms when moist air moves over colder ground or water. Common along coastal areas. At sea it is called sea fog.


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Upslope fog = forms as a result of moist, stable air being cooled adiabatically as it moves up sloping terrain. (as air rises it cools)

  • Precipitation-induced fog - forms when relatively warm rain or drizzle falls through cool air, and evaporation from the precip saturates the cool air.


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG

  • Ice Fog = cold weather when the temp is below freezing and water vapor sublimates directly as ice crystals. Can be blinding flying into the sun.

  • Fog on a METAR is used to indicate visibility of less than 5/8 of a SM


Chapter 5 4177636

FOG


Change of state

CHANGE OF STATE

  • Sublimation - ice to vapor, vapor to ice

  • Evaporation - water to vapor

  • Condensation - vapor to water

  • Freezing -water to solid water

  • Melting - solid water (ice) to water

  • Virga - precipitation that never reaches the ground

  • Virga is a perfect example of condensation then evaporation


Change of state1

CHANGE OF STATE

  • Evaporation, condensation, freezing, melting, and sublimation are changes of state in water. The exchange of heat energy is required to change a substance from one state to another.


Change of state2

CHANGE OF STATE

  • The exchange of heat energy when a substance changes from one state to another is called latent (hidden) heat.

  • Latent heat of vaporization - when water changes to vapor it takes heat from the surrounding environment (hidden in the water vapor.

  • Like when you sweat it cools your body heat is taken


Change of state3

CHANGE OF STATE

  • Latent heat of fusion - when water changes to ice, it gives off heat to the surrounding environment

  • Like when farmers use water to keep crops or fruit from freezing.

  • Latent heat of condensation - when the water vapor condenses back into liquid water, this energy is released to the atmosphere. Thus condensation is a warming process.


Super cooled water

SUPER COOLED WATER

  • Water droplets can exist below 32º F. We find them aloft between 0º C and -15º C. They may exist at temps lower than -15º C. They have been known to exist up to -40º C

  • Freezing is complex, and liquid water droplets often condense or persist at temperatures colder than 0º C because the molecular motion of the droplet remains large enough to weaken any formation of an ice crystal within the droplet . Striking an aircraft causes immediate freezing on impact.


Dew and frost

DEW AND FROST

  • If the temp of a surface cools below the dew point, dew will form on that surface

  • Frost happens when the dew point is below freezing and the surface is colder than freezing


Cloud formation

CLOUD FORMATION

  • Normally, air must become saturated for condensation or sublimation to occur.

  • The major cooling mechanism that causes condensation is adiabatic expansion. There are 5 processes which result in the ascent of air and adiabatic cooling and they are:

  • 1. Convection, 2. Mechanical turbulence, 3. Frontal lift, 4. Orographic lift, and 5. Convergence.


Cloud formation1

CLOUD FORMATION

  • Two other causes of cooling are, the evaporation of rain falling from higher cloud (rain partially evaporates as it falls through the air. The heat required for evaporation is taken from the air through which the rain is falling thus cooling the air

  • and with advection the movement of air over a surface colder than the air


1 clouds formed by convection

#1. CLOUDS FORMED BY CONVECTION

  • Convection consistes of air rising rapidly in shafts or bubbles and it occurs in unstable air. A layer of air can be made unstable when it is heated from below either by moving over a portion of the earth’s surface warmer than itself or by the earth’s surface being heated by the sun.


Convection due to solar heating

CONVECTION DUE TO SOLAR HEATING

  • As the sun heats a land surface, the lower layers of the atmosphere warm and become unstable.


Convection due to solar heating1

CONVECTION DUE TO SOLAR HEATING

  • DALR 3 degrees C/1000 feet

  • Air rises until it reaches air around it of a similar temp. Clouds form at saturation.


Convection due to advection

CONVECTION DUE TO ADVECTION

  • Movement of air over a surface warmer than itself (unstable)


Convection cloud bases

CONVECTION CLOUD BASES

  • Same water vapor content, with an increase in temperature cloud bases rise (DALR 3 degrees per/1000ft)


Estimating cumuliform cloud bases pg 51

ESTIMATING CUMULIFORM CLOUD BASES Pg. 51

  • You can estimate height of cumuliform cloud bases using surface temperature-dew point spread. Unsaturated air in a convective current cools at about 3 degrees per 1000 feet; dew point decreases at about 1F or 5/9 degree C per 1000ft. Thus, in a convective current, temperature and dew point converge at about 2.5C per 1000/ft


Estimating cumuliform cloud bases pg 511

ESTIMATING CUMULIFORM CLOUD BASES Pg. 51

  • You can get a quick estimate of a convective cloud base in thousands of feet by rounding these values and dividing into the spread or by multiplying the spread by their reciprocals. When using Fahrenheit, divide by 4 or multiply by .25; when using Celsius, divide by 2.2 or multiply by .45


Question

QUESTION

  • If the surface air temperature is 35 degrees C and the dew point is 26 degrees C. (assume standard lapse rates for a cumiliform cloud)what is the cloud base.

  • 9 degree spread/2.2 =4.0909

  • *1000 = 4100 feet.

  • Read page 51!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


Convection cloud tops

CONVECTION CLOUD TOPS

  • Depends on the instability of the air above it


2 clouds mechanical turbulence

#2. CLOUDS & MECHANICAL TURBULENCE


3 clouds formed by frontal lift

#3. CLOUDS FORMED BY FRONTAL LIFT

  • Three factors that need to be considered in relation to the formation of clouds at fronts.

    • The amount and rate of ascent of the warm air

    • The stability or instability of the warm air mass

    • The moisture content of the warm air mass


3 warm cold fronts

#3. WARM/COLD FRONTS


Trowals

TROWALS


Cloud shield

CLOUD SHIELD


Orographic lift clouds

OROGRAPHIC LIFT CLOUDS


5 clouds formed by convergence

#5. CLOUDS FORMED BY CONVERGENCE

  • Convergence with a low pressure system.

  • Generally convergent air 100-500 feet per hour


Water ice particle growth

WATER & ICE PARTICLE GROWTH

  • The Bergeron Process: condensation or sublimation directly on the particle causes it to grow

  • This may happen in light drizzle or snow

  • The second way is by collision of droplets

  • This may happen in the updrafts of a thunderstorm

  • To get any significant precipitation the clouds have to be 4000 feet thick or more


Water ice particle growth1

WATER & ICE PARTICLE GROWTH

  • Be careful if you notice snow grains on the surface. This is an indication of Freezing rain aloft. Happened on Thursday 18th of January 2001.


Lake effect

LAKE EFFECT

  • This happens when air moves over a warm lake

  • Absorbs moisture

  • Then moves over colder land

  • The airmass cools and presto, fog, rain or snow

  • Most prevalent in the winter around the Great Lakes


Lake effect1

LAKE EFFECT


Chapter 7 cloud families

CHAPTER 7 CLOUD FAMILIES


Cloud classified

CLOUD CLASSIFIED

  • According to how they develop or form

  • Cumulus - vertical development

  • Stratus - horizontal development. Layered

  • Also the word Nimbo or the suffix nimbus means rain cloud.

  • Clouds broken into fragments are often identified by the suffix fractus.


Cloud classifications four families

CLOUD CLASSIFICATIONSFOUR FAMILIES

  • High clouds - cirrus (CI), cirrocumulus (CC), cirrostratus (CS)

  • Middle clouds - altocumulus (AC), altocumulus castellanus (ACC), altostratus (AS)

  • Low clouds - stratus (ST), nimbostratus (NS), stratocumulus (SC), Stratus Fractus (SF), cumulus Fractus (SF)

  • Extensive Vertical Dev. - cumulus (CU), cumulonimbus (CB), TCU


Cloud families

CLOUD FAMILIES

  • High clouds 16,500 - 45,000

  • Middle clouds 6,500 - 23,000

  • Low clouds surface - 6,500

  • I WOULD WRITE THESE NUMBERS DOWN AND MEMORIZE!!!!!!!!


Cirrus

CIRRUS

  • Appears as white curly streaks across the sky.


Cirrocumulus

CIRROCUMULUS

  • Somewhat rare cloud. White sheet with a pebbly pattern


Cirrostratus

CIRROSTRATUS

  • Whitish veil through which the sun and moon can be seen, often surrounded by a halo.


Altocumulus

ALTOCUMULUS


Altocumulus castellanus standing lenticular

ALTOCUMULUS CASTELLANUS STANDING LENTICULAR

  • It implies considerable instability in the cloud layer. Often seen on the leeward side of mountains.


Altocumulus1

ALTOCUMULUS


Altostratus

ALTOSTRATUS

  • Sometimes the sun or moon can be seen dimly thorugh it but there are no halos


Nimbostratus

NIMBOSTRATUS

  • Nimbo=rain. Can see continuous rain, snow, freezing rain,etc.


Stratus

STRATUS

  • A uniform layer of very low cloud that may appear in extensive sheets or irregualr patches.


Stratocumulus

STRATOCUMULUS

  • Bottom has a clear cut, wavy or rolled appearance. It often appears as an extensive sheet.


Cumulonimbus

CUMULONIMBUS

  • Bad cloud!!! Can reach the tropopause, severe everything!!!!


Cumulonimbus mamatus

CUMULONIMBUS MAMATUS

  • If these guys start looking green or blue can be guaranteed hail is close!!!!


Cloud types

CLOUD TYPES


Heavy rain after a ts

Heavy rain after a TS

  • On a runway after heavy rain suspect a lot of standing water. If you grease her in you run the risk of hydroplaning. During hydroplaning, the aircraft tires are completely separated from the actual runway surface by a thin film of water. Under these conditions the tire traction becomes almost negligible and in some cases the wheel will stop rotating.


Condensation trails

CONDENSATION TRAILS

  • An aircraft leaves a condensation trail (contrail) behind it when the moisture formed during combustion and emitted with the exhaust gases is sufficient to saturate the air, and subsequently causing condensation.


Condensation trails1

CONDENSATION TRAILS

  • For each pound of aircraft fuel burned, approx. 1.4 pounds of water vapour are formed and ejected with the engine exhaust gases. This increases the RH in the wake of the aircraft.

  • Generally the contrail forms one to two thousand feet behind the aircraft as the exhaust cools at altitude.


Questions

QUESTIONS

  • What is the cloud range for bases and tops of High Clouds?

  • 16,500 - 45,000

  • What is the cloud range for bases and tops of Low clouds?

  • Surface - 6,500 feet


Questions1

QUESTIONS

  • The presence of standing lenticular altocumulus clouds is a good indication of what?

  • Strong turbulence, mountain wave.

  • The suffix nimbo means what?

  • Rain

  • Virga is what?


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