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Salmon Aquaculture: Issues and Regulations. Hadley Greene Erika Harris Peter King Jason McKinney Matt Stock. Aquaculture: The cultivation of plants, shellfish, and finfish in the water. 31 million tons produced worldwide

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Salmon aquaculture issues and regulations
Salmon Aquaculture: Issues and Regulations

Hadley Greene

Erika Harris

Peter King

Jason McKinney

Matt Stock


Aquaculture the cultivation of plants shellfish and finfish in the water
Aquaculture: The cultivation of plants, shellfish, and finfish in the water

  • 31 million tons produced worldwide

  • 12 million pounds of Atlantic salmon and steelhead produced in Washington state annually


A net pen
A Net-Pen finfish in the water


Net pen salmon aquaculture
Net-Pen Salmon Aquaculture finfish in the water

  • Floating net-pens

  • Hatchery-born Atlantic salmon

  • Fishmeal

  • Antibiotics


Net pen salmon aquaculture operations
Net-Pen Salmon Aquaculture Operations finfish in the water

  • Norway

  • Chile

  • Washington State

  • British Columbia


Washington and b c
Washington and B.C finfish in the water


The economics of salmon aquaculture
The Economics of Salmon Aquaculture finfish in the water

  • Farmed fish vs. Wild fish

  • Aquaculture contributes $30 million in wholesale income to Washington coastal communities


Net pen salmon production
Net-Pen Salmon Production finfish in the water


Net pen salmon issues three umbrellas
Net-Pen Salmon Issues: Three Umbrellas finfish in the water

  • Net-pen salmon, effects on wild stocks

  • Human health risks

  • Environmental implications on proximal communities


First umbrella farmed and wild stock salmon
First Umbrella: Farmed and Wild Stock Salmon finfish in the water

  • Reduction in gene pool, accelerated “evolution;” two possible effects

    Result:  competition with wild stocks


First umbrella farmed and wild stock salmon1
First Umbrella: Farmed and Wild Stock Salmon finfish in the water

  • High stress conditions

  • High escapement

    Result:  transfer of disease


Second umbrella human health risks
Second Umbrella: Human Health Risks finfish in the water

  • Less healthy

  • Transfer of disease

  • Antibiotics


Aeromonas
Aeromonas finfish in the water

Aeromonashydrophila


Aeromonas in humans
Aeromonas finfish in the water in Humans

Bullous lesions

Ecthymagangrenosum

Cellulitis of the forearm


Third umbrella env implications on proximal communities
Third Umbrella: Env. Implications on Proximal Communities finfish in the water

  • Bio-deposits

  • Heavy metal accumulation

  • Therapeutic compounds

  • Dioxin bioaccumulation and transfer up through food chain


Federal regulatory framework national aquaculture act of 1980
Federal Regulatory Framework: National Aquaculture Act of 1980

  • Expansion of industry a “national interest”

  • Sought to eliminate “diffuse legal jurisdiction”

  • USDA lead agency in charge of oversight


Joint subcommittee on aquaculture jsa
Joint Subcommittee on Aquaculture (JSA) 1980

  • National Aquaculture Development Plan

  • Identify all constraints to future industry expansion

  • Identified respective roles of USDA, DOC, DOI


Noaa and nmfs
NOAA and NMFS 1980

  • Development of criteria for environmental protection

  • Encourage industry development

  • NMFS: ESA/MMPA adminstration


State regulatory framework
State Regulatory Framework 1980

  • Departments of: Ecology, Natural Resources, Fish & Wildlife, Agriculture

  • Tribes

  • Local Jurisdictions


Washington department of ecology
Washington Department of Ecology 1980

Regulates facilities and implements federal regulations

  • Atlantic salmon classified as a pollutant by the Pollution Control Hearings BoardEcology must grant NPDES permits to net-pen facilities

  • All new net-pen facilities must conduct a study of the project’s impact on the env. under SEPA

  • In accordance with SMA, DOE must issue a Coastal Consistency Determination (CCD)


Washington department of natural resources
Washington Department of Natural Resources 1980

Caretaker and proprietor of submerged lands

  • Washington state is a “non-riparian” state

  • DNR issues an Aquatic Lease Permit authorizing net-pen operators to use state-owned aquatic lands


WDFW 1980

Atlantic salmon as “private sector cultured aquatic products

  • Aquaculture Disease Control Act

  • Finfish Import/Transfer Permit


WDFW 1980

Responsible for “food fish” regulations

  • WDFW manages all food fish in state

  • Prohibits the deliberate release of exotic species (Atlantic salmon)

     currently revising these rules


WDFW 1980

Hydraulic Code

  • Limits impacts on aquatic habitat

  • HPA required before construction of net-pen facility

    Administrative

  • Operators must register with WDFW


Us army corps of engineers
US Army Corps of Engineers 1980

  • Section 404 of the Clean Water Act of 1971

  • Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899


Section 404 of the cwa
Section 404 of the CWA 1980

  • Created to protect all wetlands from the dumping of dredged fill material

  • 1972 Congress passed Federal Water Pollution Control Act amendments

  • Section 404 of the CWA established a permit program

  • 1974 Corps adopts regulations to implement the program

  • 1975 Federal Court decides the Corps should revise/expand role

  • 1977 Corps issues final regulations which are upheld by Congress


Section 10 of the rivers and harbors act
Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act 1980

  • Created to protect navigable waters from the placement of obstructions

  • Act also precludes filling and dredging


Washington state department of agriculture
Washington State Department of Agriculture 1980

  • Legislation in 1985 declared “aquaculture as agriculture

  • Fish regulated as a commodity

  • DOA in charge of marketing the product

  • Co-manages the Disease Inspection and Control Program


Local jurisdiction s shoreline master program
Local Jurisdiction’s Shoreline Master Program 1980

  • Shoreline Management Act of 1971

  • Delegates authority to local jurisdiction

  • Substantial Use Permit for construction over $2,500


Conclusions
Conclusions 1980

  • New industry, new regulatory setting

  • Potential conflict of interest

  • Probable ESA considerations

    REGULATIONS INSUFFICIENT


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