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Conceptualising Cultural Environments. Seminar Four: the demand for events. Motivations to Attend Events. Social Motives Social interaction with others Creation of community spirit Status of recognition of achievement Philanthropy or charitable contributions.

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Conceptualising cultural environments

Conceptualising Cultural Environments

Seminar Four: the demand for events


Motivations to attend events
Motivations to Attend Events

  • Social Motives

    • Social interaction with others

    • Creation of community spirit

    • Status of recognition of achievement

    • Philanthropy or charitable contributions

  • Organisational Motives

    • The need to make sales

    • The need to have an organisational presence

    • Status or recognition

    • Sponsorship or community spirit


Motivations to attend events1
Motivations to Attend Events

  • Physiological Motives

    • Relaxation or recognition with others

    • Sexual enjoyment with others

    • Exercise or physical challenge

    • To eat, drink or be entertained

  • Personal Motives

    • Seeking new experiences

    • Learning and education

    • Creativity and exploration

    • Fulfilment of ambitions


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions

  • How do you think demand for events has changed in recent years?

  • What factors do you think have contributed to these changes?

  • What positive and negative impacts do you think these changes can have on events? You might want to think about specific event with which you are familiar.

  • As event managers what can we do to try to motivate people to attend our event rather than others?


Illegal cultural consumption
Illegal Cultural Consumption

  • How do we define illegal leisure?

    • Illegal leisure is tied up with the idea of social harm

    • “the idea of social harm suggests that the rights of individuals to enjoy leisure activities can be restricted if it causes other people harm” (Harris 2005:169)

    • Illegal leisure is also concerned with ‘perceived immorality’ – things that we think are ‘not acceptable’

  • The role of the Government

    • The government decides what constitutes illegal leisure

    • Legislation and Acts of Parliament are in place/brought in to restrict leisure activities – control what people can do

  • Does this work?

    • Why are some seemingly harmful activities illegal and others not?

    • Do people pay attention to restrictions?


Illegal cultural consumption1
Illegal Cultural Consumption

  • Normalisation

    • The concept of normalisation has been used in many contexts but essentially it is concerned with how a ‘deviant’, often subcultural, population or their deviant behaviour is able to be accommodated into a larger group or society (Parker, Aldridge & Measham, 1998)

    • For example, it is often said that drug use has been normalised among young people – i.e. it has become acceptable

  • Why is some people’s illegal leisure seen to be ok and other’s not?

    • Blood sports and foxhunting

    • Any Winehouse

  • How can illegal leisure impact on events and entertainment?

  • What are the main issues for managers in these areas?


Illegal cultural consumption2
Illegal Cultural Consumption

  • Why are certain cultural activities seen to be acceptable while others are seen to be unacceptable?

  • Why do you think people participate in illegal leisure activities?

  • Do you think that some activities are seen to be more attractive because they are restricted?

  • Why do you think it appears to be acceptable for some people to participate in illegal leisure but not others?

  • Do you think some forms of illegal leisure are more acceptable than others and if so, why?


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