Leviticus
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Sinai. Leviticus. People Set Apart for God . Sacrifices. Atonement. Introduction to the Book of Leviticus. Theme of the Book of Leviticus Holiness of Israel as people set apart to serve God The word “holy” occurs 131 times The word “clean” occurs 186 times Writer Moses Place of Writing

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Leviticus

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Leviticus

Sinai

Leviticus

People Set Apart for God

Sacrifices

Atonement


Introduction to the book of leviticus

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Theme of the Book of Leviticus

    • Holiness of Israel as people set apart to serve God

      • The word “holy” occurs 131 times

      • The word “clean” occurs 186 times

  • Writer

    • Moses

  • Place of Writing

    • Probably written while at Mt. Sinai and in the wilderness wandering

  • Divine authorship

    • 38 times it states God spoke the words …


Introduction to the book of leviticus1

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Content of the Book of Leviticus

    • Full of sacrificial rituals which have not been practiced for almost 2000 years

    • Christians see the replacement of the physical system with a spiritual one (Jer. 31:31)

    • Many laws covered

      • Civil – Social system organization

      • Ceremonial - Feasts

      • Moral - Values

      • Religious – Worship and Sacrifice

      • Sanitary – Food laws and cleanliness


Introduction to the book of leviticus2

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Beginning and end points of Leviticus

    • Tent of meeting at Sinai (1:1)

    • Mount Sinai (27:34)


Introduction to the book of leviticus3

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Outline of Leviticus

    • The way to approach God (1:1-16:34)

    • The way to maintain fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • God’s response to obedience and disobedience (26:1-46)

    • Vows and tithing (27:1-34)


Introduction to the book of leviticus4

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Four basic principles seen in Leviticus

    • Israel is God’s unique people set apart for service and worship of the one true God

    • Access to God is through the substitutionary atoning sacrifice of innocent (pure) for the guilty

    • Israel to abstain from sin

    • Only pure things acceptable offerings to God


Introduction to the book of leviticus5

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Historical consideration

    • Early biblical critics of the Bible maintained that laws like in Leviticus were not in evidence at this time period in history

    • Hammurabi’s Code and Sumerian laws dating to the same time period as the laws of Leviticus and even older


Introduction to the book of leviticus6

Introduction to the Book of Leviticus

  • Chronological connections to Exodus and Numbers

    • Leviticus records the laws and regulations given to Moses on Mt. Sinai during the time period recorded in the Book of Exodus

      • Sacrificial system carried out by priests given in detail

      • Rules regarding the Tabernacle

    • Tabernacle completed on the 1st day, 1st month of 2nd year (Ex. 40:17)

    • First event in Numbers is the census on 1st day, 2nd month of 2nd year

    • Leave Sinai 20th day, 2nd month of 2nd year


Leviticus ways to approach god

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Distinction between the offerings

      • Group 1 – Fellowship Group, celebrating relationship with God

        • Burnt offering – recognition of sinfulness

        • Meal offering – thankfulness to God

        • Peace offering – fellowship and communion with God

      • Group 2 – Cleansing Group, removal of sins

        • Sin offering

        • Trespass/Guilt offering

      • Ways group one differs from group two

        • Group one is described as “pleasing odor to Yahweh”

        • Group one - no specific sin prompts these sacrifices

        • Group one is Voluntary

        • Group one - fellowship and relationship celebrated


Leviticus ways to approach god1

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 1 Fellowship - Burnt offering (1:1-17)

      • Purpose: to propitiate for sin in general

        • Recognition of being a sinful person

        • Propitiate – carries the idea of take the place of, make reconciliation (show mercy) by providing a vicarious (substitution) sacrifice

      • The Sacrifice – according to wealth (ox, sheep, goat, dove)

      • God’s portion – all the animal

      • Priest’s portion - none

      • Person’s portion - none


Leviticus ways to approach god2

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 1 Fellowship - Burnt offering (1:1-17)

      • Occasion for burnt offerings – atonement (1:4)

        • Daily sacrifice (morning and evening)

        • Sabbath

        • Festivals (New Moon, Day of Atonement, Passover, etc

        • Private burnt offerings prescribed by law

          • Consecration of Priests

          • Purification of women

          • Removal of leprosy

          • Removal of uncleanliness

          • Breach of vow

        • Freewill burnt offering

          • Acknowledge God’s mercy and give thanks


Leviticus ways to approach god3

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 1 Fellowship - Meal offering (2:1-16)

      • Purpose – gift and thanks for God’s blessings

      • The Sacrifice – grains, e.g. flours, oils cooked or not & frankincense (varied according to wealth)

      • God’s portion – part to God

      • Priest’s portion – rest to be eaten by priests

      • Person’s portion – none

      • Occasion – anytime, first-fruits

        • “Salt of the covenant” added as a sign of incorruptness of covenant


Leviticus ways to approach god4

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 1 Fellowship - Peace offering (3:1-17)

      • Purpose – Fellowship/communion meal to remember one’s relationship with God

      • Sacrifice – Unblemished male or female ox, sheep, goat

      • God’s portion – Fat and blood

      • Priest’s portion:

        • Wave offering – breast portion goes to high priest

        • Heave offering – thigh goes to officiating priest

        • (Indicated by the motion of the priest)

      • Person’s portion – remainder eaten in court yard on the same day


Leviticus ways to approach god5

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 1 Fellowship - Peace offering (3:1-17)

      • Various occasions for peace offerings:

        • Thanks offering (7:12)

          • Purpose – for unexpected blessings or deliverance

        • Votive offering (7:16)

          • Purpose – for the fulfillment of vows

          • Could be eaten on the first and second day

        • Freewill offering (7:16)

          • Purpose – to express general thankfulness and love toward God without regard to a specific blessing

          • Could be eaten on the first and second day


Leviticus ways to approach god6

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 2 Cleansing - Sin offering (4:1-5:13)

      • Purpose – To atone for specific unintentional sins where no restitution was possible; also for purification from uncleanleness

      • Sacrifice:

        • Priest or whole congregation = bull

        • Ruler = He goat

        • Commoner = She goat or lamb

        • Poor = dove or pigeon or fine flour

      • God’s portion – fatty portion

      • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal

        • Skin and head burned outside of camp

        • Blood put on horns of alter of burnt offerings

      • Person’s portion – none


Leviticus ways to approach god7

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 2 Cleansing - Sin offering (4:1-5:13)

      • God’s portion – fatty portion

      • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal

        • Skin and head burned outside of camp

        • Blood put on horns of alter of burnt offerings

      • Person’s portion – none

      • Occasion – Atonement for sins (4:31, 35) and forgiveness (5:14-16:7)


Leviticus ways to approach god8

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 2 Cleansing – Trespass/Guilt (5:14-6:7)

      • Purpose – To atone for specific unintentional & intentional sins where restitution was possible

        • Damages computed by priests and fifth or 20% add to replacement cost

      • Sacrifice – Ram only

      • God’s portion – fatty portion

      • Priest’s portion – all the rest of animal

      • Person’s portion – none

      • Occasion – Atonement for sins

      • (4:31, 35) and forgiveness (5:14-16:7)


Leviticus ways to approach god9

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws and sacrifices (1:1-6:7)

    • Group 2 Cleansing – Trespass/Guilt (5:14-6:7)

      • Differences between sin offering and trespass

        • Applied to individuals only

        • Only a Ram could be sacrificed

        • Pertained to intentional sin as well as unintentional

      • Intentionality

        • Sin against a person in 6:1-7 seems intentional sin

        • Numbers 5:6-8 notes that confession was necessary for deliberate sin and restitution was necessary after conviction (5:7)


Leviticus ways to approach god10

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Instruction for priests (6:8-7:36)

    • Burnt offerings (6:8-13)

      • Alter of burnt offerings to be kept burning

      • Ministerial garb when performing sacrifices

      • Remove ashes to the ash heap outside of camp, not in ministerial clothes

    • Meal offerings (6:14-18)

      • Daily required offering to support the priests

    • Grain offerings (6:19-23)

      • At priestly consecrations

    • Sin offerings (6:24-30)

    • Trespass offerings (7:1-10)


Leviticus ways to approach god11

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Instruction for priests (6:8-7:36)

    • Peace offerings (7:11-36)

      • Forbidden portion of a sacrifice (7:11-27)

        • Cannot eat the fat

        • Cannot eat the blood

        • Belong to God

      • Portions for the priests (7:28-36)

        • Wave offerings

        • Heave offerings


Leviticus ways to approach god12

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20)

    • Moses returns from receiving instructions on Mt. Sinai to implement them

    • Consecration of priests, Aaron and sons (set-aside for a holy purpose

    • Ceremonial washing (8:6)

    • Priest clothing (8:6-9)

      • Urim and Thummin – literally “lights,” “perfection” – used to cast lots for God will (Ex. 28:30; Num. 27:21; 1 Sam. 28:6; Ez. 2:63; Neh. 7:26)

    • Anoints tabernacle & Aarons head with oil (8:10-13)


Leviticus ways to approach god13

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20)

    • Moses consecrates Aaron with offerings

      • Bull for sin offering (8:14-17)

        • Priests placed their hands on head of sacrifice

        • Fat burned on alter

        • Remainder burned outside of camp (i.e. sin offering)

      • Ram for burnt offering (8:18-21)

        • Hands on head symbolizes their complete dedication to God

      • Ram of ordination (8:22-29)

        • Blood put on right ear, thumb, and big toe


Leviticus ways to approach god14

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20)

    • Moses consecrates Aaron with offerings

      • Blood of consecration and oil (8:30)

      • Eat of the offering for seven days (8:31-36)

        • Atonement (8:34)


Leviticus ways to approach god15

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20)

    • Aaron offers sacrifices for high priests – commencement of priestly ministry (9:1-24)

      • God’s instruction on offerings before His glory (9:1-14)

        • Sin offering for Aaron and the people

        • Burnt offering for Aaron and the people

        • Peace and grain offering

      • Aaron carries out sacrifices for himself (9:8-14)

      • Sacrifice for the people (9:15-22)

      • Glory of God appears to people (9:23-24)

        • Fire comes down from heaven – consumes sacrifice


Leviticus ways to approach god16

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Moses carries out instructions on priests (8:1-10:20)

    • Proper method of sacrifice by priests (10:1-20)

      • Nadab and Abihu used strange fire (10:1-7)

        • Used fire different from what God commanded

        • May have been drunk

        • Showed disrespect for God’s will

      • Instruction to Aaron on the use of strong drink (10:8-9)

      • Distinction between holy & profane (10:10-11)

      • Proper use of sacrifices (10:12-20)

        • Wives of priests could join in eating wave & heave offerings


Leviticus ways to approach god17

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33)

    • Clean and unclean animals (11:1-47)

      • Land animals (11:1-8)

        • Split hoof and chews cud is clean others unclean

      • Water animals (11:9-12)

        • Scales and fins only clean

      • Birds (11:13-19)

        • List of unclean birds – scavengers unclean

      • Winged insects (11:20-23)

        • Four-footed unclean, clean – jointed legs & hops

      • Touching the dead (11:24-40)

        • Unclean until evening, wash self and clothes

      • Swarming things (11:41-47)


Leviticus ways to approach god18

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33)

    • Clean and unclean animals (11:1-47)

      • Touching the dead (11:24-40)

        • Unclean until evening, wash self and clothes

      • Swarming things (11:41-47)

        • All unclean

        • Crawls on belly unclean

        • Many legs unclean


Leviticus ways to approach god19

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33)

    • Purification of mother at childbirth (12:1-8)

      • Male child: Unclean for 7 days and purifies for 33 days

      • Female child: Unclean for 14 days and purifies for 66 days

      • Why the difference of time of unclean

        • Some say it shows gender preference given to males

        • It is probably God providing a longer rest period for women who have female children because of the cultural tendency to prefer male children and so the mother might receive preferential care for having a male

        • Unclean – do not do your normal work


Leviticus ways to approach god20

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33)

    • Purification and care of leprosy (13:1-14:57)

      • Detailed description on diagnosing leprosy and care

        • Examined by the priests

        • If found to have leprosy considered unclean (unhealthy)

        • If not below skin level and hair has not turned white one is put in isolation for seven days, if no change the person stays another seven days

        • If symptoms spread considered unclean and live separate from rest of people

        • Kept people at a distance by calling out unclean


Leviticus ways to approach god21

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Laws of purification (11:1-15:33)

    • Purification for bodily secretions (15:1-33)

      • Normal bodily secretions

        • Unclean until evening

        • Washing only required

      • Abnormal bodily secretions

        • Unclean for seven days

        • Sacrifice required

      • Related to males (15:1-18)

        • Seven days unclean

        • Sacrifice: sin offering and burnt offering

      • Related to females (15:19-34)

        • Seven days unclean

        • Sacrifice: sin offering and burnt offering


Leviticus ways to approach god22

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • Priest and family sacrifice (16:1-14)

      • Priests - bull for sin offering, ram – burnt offering

        • Before can enter the holy of holies

      • Two goats – cast lots, one for sin offering & scapegoat

        • Goat offered

        • Shows imperfection of priesthood (Heb. 7:26-28)

      • Wash and clean clothes to enter holy of holies

      • Blood sprinkled on the mercy seat

      • Blood sprinkled on the horns of the alter


Leviticus ways to approach god23

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • People’s sacrifice (16:15-19)

      • Ram for a burnt offering

      • Two goats – cast lots, one for sin offering & scapegoat

        • Cast lots for goat to let loose in the wilderness

        • One sacrificed to God and one for “removal”

      • Blood sprinkled on the mercy seat

      • Blood sprinkled on the horns of the alter

        • “Then Aaron shall lay both of his hands on the head of the live goat, and confess over it all the iniquities of the sons of Israel and all their transgressions in regard to all their sins; and he shall lay them on the head of the goat and send it away into the wilderness by the hand of a man who stands in readiness.


Leviticus ways to approach god24

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • People’s sacrifice (16:20-28)

      • Bear the sins of the people of Israel

      • Non-sacrificed goat - represents release from sins

        • Scapegoat – confesses over it all of the Israelite’s sin

        • Aaron lays hands on head of goat and confesses sins of Israel, sends the goat away into the wilderness

        • Goat shall bear their sins (16:22)

        • Priests to wash and put his priestly robes on again

      • Offers up the rams as burnt offerings with the fat of the sin offering

      • Flesh of the sin offering is offered outside of camp


Leviticus ways to approach god25

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • Perpetual statute (16:29-34)

      • Three things to remember about Day Atonement

        • Date of the Day of Atonement – 7 month, day 10

        • Purpose – remove sins (16:30)

        • Day of Atonement – to be like Sabbath day, set aside for God


Leviticus ways to approach god26

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • Key terms related to sacrifice

      • Atonement – reconciliation to God by a substitutionary sacrifice with shedding of blood (Lev. 16:11, 16)

      • Reconciliation – be brought back into a right relationship

      • Propitiation - A sacrifice-like action that removes a barrier of sin which blocks a good relationship between God and people . (Rom. 3:25; Heb. 2:17; 1 Jn. 2:2, 4:10)

      • Consecration - devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. (Lev. 21:12; 2 Chron. 29:17)


Leviticus ways to approach god27

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31)

      • New Covenant is better (Heb. 8:6-7)

      • New Covenant make the old obsolete (8:13)

      • The veil over the holy of holies indicates by the Holy Spirit that the way to the presence of God has not been totally revealed while the tabernacle was is standing (Heb. 9:8)

      • Old way could not make the worshiper perfect in conscience(9:9).


Leviticus ways to approach god28

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31)

      • Jesus entered the most holy place through his blood (9:12)

        • Jesus blood cleanses our conscience through the eternal Spirit (Heb. 9:14)

      • Jesus the mediator of a new covenant

        • Death takes place for redemption of transgressions (Heb. 9:15)

        • Without blood there is no forgiveness

      • Holy place is a copy of the heavenly (9:23-24)

      • Jesus did not have to die yearly (9:25-28)


Leviticus ways to approach god29

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Day of Atonement sacrifice (16:1-34)

    • New Testament and the perfect sacrifice (Heb. 8:1-10:31)

      • The law was a shadow of things to come and could not make the people perfect or complete (Heb. 10:1)

      • Sacrifices were reminders (10:3)

      • Jesus took the place or fulfilled the old system (10:4-18)

        • See Heb. 10:9 and Heb. 10:12

      • Christians have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus (Heb. 10:19)

      • Hold fast to our confession (Heb. 10:23)


Leviticus ways to approach god30

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Sacrifice rules for killing animals (17:1-9)

      • Killed as a peace offering (5)

      • Not offered to the goat idol (7)

      • Purpose: to keep from improper worship (7)

      • Permanent statue (7)

      • Those who disobey will be cut off from the people (9)


Leviticus ways to approach god31

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Sacrifice and sanctity of blood (17:10-16)

      • Life is in the blood (see also Gen 9:4)

      • Not to eat

      • Blood to be used as atonement


Leviticus ways to approach god32

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Not to live as the Egyptians or Canaanites (18:1-5)

        • God is the source of how people should live

        • They are to follow God (18:3)

        • Reason: He is God


Leviticus ways to approach god33

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Law on sexual relations (18:6-30)

        • Laws on incest (18:6-18)

        • Other sexual sins (19:19-23)

          • Not to lie with a woman during unclean time

          • Adultery

          • Fornication

          • Worship of Molech

          • Homosexuality (18:22; 2013; Rom. 1:27; 1 Cor. 6:9; 1 Tim. 1:10)

          • Bestiality


Leviticus ways to approach god34

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Results of continuing to sin (18:24-30)

        • Become defiled like the land God is giving them and so they will be corrected like he correct the people in the land before

        • They will be cutoff from among the people


Leviticus ways to approach god35

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Relationship laws (19:1-37)

        • Love your parents (1-3)

        • No images of God

        • Proper sacrifice to God (worship)

        • Leaving some of the harvest for the poor

        • No stealing or dealing falsely

        • Not to oppress your neighbor (13-14)

        • Impartial judging (15)

        • No slandering (16)


Leviticus ways to approach god36

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Relationship laws (19:1-37)

        • Love your neighbor as yourself, no vengeance (17-18)

        • Mixed breeding of cattle and mixed planted seeds (19)

        • Sexual relations with neighbor’s slaves (20-22)

        • Fruit of trees

        • No divination

        • Not to use mediums or spiritists

        • Kind to strangers

        • Hones in weights and measures


Leviticus ways to approach god37

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Punishment for sin (20:1-27)

        • Applied to Israelites and aliens living in Israel

        • Death penalty for some crimes

          • Giving your child to Molech = religious adultery (1-5)

          • Using mediums and spiritists – cut off from the people (6-8,27)

          • Cursing father and mother – put to death (9)

          • Adultery – put to death (10-12)

          • Homosexuality – put to death (13-14)

          • Marries mother and daughter (15)

          • Bestiality – death (16)

          • Relations with uncles & aunts – cut off from the people (17-21)


Leviticus ways to approach god38

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy living: laws related to social behavior (18:1-20:27)

      • Punishment for sin (20:1-27)

        • God emphasizes the need to keep his statutes and not follow the customs of the nation they are to drive out of the land (22-23)

        • The statutes are to help the Israelites to live lives that are pleasing to God (holy living – living with God as one’s ruler) but also preserve good social relationships

        • Eating clean animals was to remind the Israelites they were to live holy (clean) lives – set apart for God’s purpose (24-26)


Leviticus ways to approach god39

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws governing the priests (21:1-22:33)

      • Priests keeping themselves holy (21:1-9)

        • Ceremonial purity (21:1-6)

        • Marital purity (21:7-9)

      • High priests keeping themselves holy (21:10-15)

      • Keeping the sacrifices pure (21:16-22:33)

        • Various laws related to proper sacrifice (21:16-22:16)

        • Flawless animals for sacrifice (22:17-33)


Leviticus ways to approach god40

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44)

      • Weekly observance (23:1-3)

        • Sabbath (23:1-3)

          • Purpose: Day of rest from regular work day

          • Every seventh day


Leviticus ways to approach god41

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44)

      • Annual celebrations or festivals (23:4-44)

        • Passover & Feast of Unleavened Bread (23:4-14)

          • Passover – 1st month, 14th day , begins celebration

          • Purpose – commemorate God’s deliverance of Israel from Egyptian slavery

          • Ritual – lamb killed, blood sprinkled on door posts, roasted and eaten by offerers

          • New Testament – pointed to a greater sacrifice and salvation through Christ’s crucifixion

          • Feast of Unleavened Bread – 1st month, 15th day for 7 days

          • Purpose – to commemorate the hardship of the hurried departure from Egypt

          • Ritual – offering of the first fruits, eating only unleavened bread


Leviticus ways to approach god42

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44)

      • Annual celebrations or festivals (23:4-44)

        • Pentecost (Feast of Weeks) (23:15-22)

          • Date – 3rd month, 50 days after the Passover

          • Purpose – dedicate the first fruits of the wheat harvest to God

          • Ritual – sin offerings, burnt offerings and peace offerings

        • Feast of Trumpet (23:-25)

          • Date – 7th month, 1st day

          • Purpose – announce the sacred month & prepare for Day of Atonement

        • Day of Atonement (23:26-32)

          • Date – 7th month, 10th day

          • Purpose – atoning sacrifice for forgiveness of sins

          • Ritual – burnt offering, scapegoat and sin offering


Leviticus ways to approach god43

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Holy days and festivals to be observed (23:1-44)

      • Annual celebrations or festivals (23:4-44)

        • Feast of Booths (23:33-44)

          • Date 7th month, 15th day for 7 days

          • Purpose – commemorate the wandering in the wilderness and the completion of the harvest

          • Ritual – burnt offering; living in booths for 7 days


Leviticus annual jewish feasts

Leviticus – Annual Jewish Feasts


Leviticus ways to approach god44

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Maintenance of the tabernacle (24:1-9)

      • Oil for the lamp to be kept on hand for the lamp to burn continually

      • Flour for cakes prepared for each Sabbath


Leviticus ways to approach god45

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Judicial penalties for breaking laws (24:10-23)

      • Case of a person who cursed God

        • Man who’s mother was an Israelite and father an Egyptian fought with an Israelite

        • Cursed God

        • Brought before Moses so the command of the Lord might be made known (24:12)

        • Sentence was stoning (24:14)


Leviticus ways to approach god46

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Judicial penalties for breaking laws (24:10-23)

      • Other possible sentence for crimes

        • Blasphemy – stoning

        • Murder – death

        • Animal’s death – replacement of animal

      • Eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth sentencing

        • Describes God’s justice system not revenge for which it is often used


Leviticus ways to approach god47

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws for society in the Promised Land (24:10-23)

      • Sabbatical Year (25:1-7)

        • Only found in Israel’s history

        • Every 7th year no sowing, reaping or gathering

        • Only eat from the fields

        • Purpose – land is to have rest


Leviticus ways to approach god48

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws for society in the Promised Land (24:10-23)

      • Year of Jubilee (25:8-24)

        • Every 50th year set aside as holy (11)

        • Starts on Day of Atonement with blowing of Ram horn

        • Functioned as a Sabbatical Year

        • God will bless the year before so there will be plenty

        • Purpose – Return of people’s land that they had sold as permanent selling of land was not allowed

        • Land was sold according to the value of the crops that it would produce before the next Year of Jubilee


Leviticus ways to approach god49

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws for society in the Promised Land (24:10-23)

      • Redemption of property (25:25-34)

        • Purpose – allow people to buy back land before Jubilee anytime they had the funds

        • Buy back price to be calculated on the time left till the Year of Jubilee

        • House in a walled city does not revert back at Jubilee but can be purchase back within a year of sell

        • House on land does revert back with the land at Jubilee

        • House of Levites sold in the cities do revert back at Jubilee

        • Pasture fields of Levites cannot be sold


Leviticus ways to approach god50

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws for society in the Promised Land (24:10-23)

      • Laws of usury (25:35-38)

        • People are to support the poor and not charge interest on loans

        • Interest on food and money not to be charged


Leviticus ways to approach god51

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Way of maintaining fellowship with God (17:1-25:55)

    • Laws for society in the Promised Land (24:10-23)

      • Redemption of slaves (25:39-55)

        • Israelites sold to Israelites (39-43)

          • Could not be slaves, must be hired

          • Released and given their land at Jubilee

          • Not to be treated severely

        • Non-Israelites (44-46)

          • May be bought as slaves

        • Israelites sold to non-Israelites (47-55)

          • May be redeemed anytime by the slave or a relative

          • Must pay proportionally to the Year of Jubilee

          • Must be released in the year of Jubilee


Leviticus ways to approach god52

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • God’s response to obedience & disobedience (26:1-46)

    • Blessing of keeping God’s commands (26:1-13)

      • Rain and good harvests

      • Peace in the land

      • Multiply the people

      • God will continue with them


Leviticus ways to approach god53

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • God’s response to obedience & disobedience (26:1-46)

    • Results of not keeping God’s commands (26:14-39)

      • Sudden terror, consumption and fever (16)

      • Land will not be fruitful (17)

      • Struck down by their enemies (17)

      • Continuing to not follow God will bring:

        • Continual famine

        • Plagues

        • Problems and capture by their enemies

      • Land will have a Sabbath rest after people captured and those left will live in fear


Leviticus ways to approach god54

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • God’s response to obedience & disobedience (26:1-46)

    • Repentance and change always possible (26:40-46)

      • These consequences are intended to turn the people back to God

      • God is always calling people to confess their sins and God will keep his covenant

        • God keeps his side of the covenant but the people at times fail to live by faith in God and break the covenant

      • God will not destroy them even when they are taken into the lands of their enemy (43-46)


Leviticus ways to approach god55

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Vows and Tithing (27:1-34)

    • Regulations on dedication of things to God and their redemption (27:1-29)

      • Means given to God at the tabernacle/temple

      • People (1-8; see 1 Sam. 1:11)

        • Males 20-60 = 50 shekels

        • Females 20-60 = 30 shekels

        • Males 5-20 = 20 shekels

        • Females 5-20 = 10 shekels

        • Male above 60 = 15 shekels

        • Female above 60 10 shekels

        • For the poor the priests can set a value within the poor’s means to pay


Leviticus ways to approach god56

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Vows and Tithing (27:1-34)

    • Regulations on dedication of things to God and their redemption (27:1-29)

      • Animals (9-13)

        • Appropriate sacrificial animal cannot be redeemed but must be offered as a sacrifice

        • Unclean animals valued by the priest & sold plus 1/5th

      • House (14-15)

        • Priest values the house and 1/5th added

      • Property (16-25)

        • Priests set price by years remaining until Jubilee and add 1/5th


Leviticus ways to approach god57

Leviticus - Ways to Approach God

  • Vows and Tithing (27:1-34)

    • Regulations on dedication of things to God and their redemption (27:1-29)

      • Firstborn (26-29)

        • Not redeemable because only God can redeem them

        • Levites will later be used to redeem the firstborn

    • Redeeming the tithe (27:30-34)

      • Anything tithed may be redeemed and 1/5th added


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