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Chapter 17. Respiratory System. Respiratory System Functions. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide Production of sound. Respiration . External respiration Internal respiration Cellular respiration or oxidation. Respiratory Organs and Structures. Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea

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chapter 17

Chapter 17

Respiratory System

respiratory system functions
Respiratory System Functions
  • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
  • Production of sound
respiration
Respiration
  • External respiration
  • Internal respiration
  • Cellular respiration or oxidation
respiratory organs and structures
Respiratory Organs and Structures
  • Nasal cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
respiratory organs and structures1
Respiratory Organs and Structures
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli
  • Lungs
  • Pleura
  • Mediastinum
the nasal cavity
The Nasal Cavity
  • Anterior nares or nostrils
  • Nasal septum
  • Turbinates or nasal conchae bones
  • Cilia
  • Olfactory nerve
  • Sinuses
the pharynx
The Pharynx
  • Also called the throat
  • Common passageway for food and air
  • Nasopharynx
  • Oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Epiglottis
the larynx
The Larynx
  • Also called voice box
  • Nine fibrocartilaginous plates
  • Mucous membrane
  • Glottis
the trachea
The Trachea
  • Also called windpipe
  • Hyaline cartilage
  • Mucous membrane and ciliated epithelium
  • Damage caused by smoking
the bronchi and the bronchioles
The Bronchi and the Bronchioles
  • Right and left bronchus
      • Ciliated epithelium
      • Hyaline cartilage
  • Bronchi subdivide into bronchioles
  • Alveolar sacs (alveoli)
the alveoli
The Alveoli
  • Sacs of single layer epithelial tissue
  • Surrounded by bed of capillaries
  • Surfactant
  • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
the lungs
The Lungs
  • Separated by the mediastinum and the heart
  • Apex is top of each lung; broad lower part is base
  • Base rests over the diaphragm
  • Right lung has three lobes; left lung has two lobes
the pleura
The Pleura
  • A thin, moist, slippery membrane of tough endothelial cells that covers lungs
  • Each lung encased in double-walled sac
  • Pleurisy
  • Pleural fluid
  • Thoracentesis
  • Pneumothorax
the mediastinum
The Mediastinum
  • Also called the interpleural space
  • Located between the lungs
  • Contains the thoracic viscera
mechanics of breathing
Mechanics of Breathing
  • Pulmonary ventilation is called breathing
  • Due to changes in pressure which occur within the chest cavity
  • Variation in pressure caused by cellular respiration and mechanical breathing movements
the breathing process
The Breathing Process
  • Inhalation/inspiration
  • Exhalation/expiration
  • Respiratory movements and frequency of respiration
control of breathing
Control of Breathing
  • Neural factors
  • Chemical factors
lung capacity and volume
Lung Capacity and Volume
  • Tidal volume
  • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
  • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
  • Vital lung capacity
lung capacity and volume1
Lung Capacity and Volume
  • Residual volume
  • Functional residual capacity
  • Total lung capacity
types of respiration
Types of Respiration
  • Apnea
  • Dyspnea
  • Eupnea
  • Hyperpnea
types of respiration1
Types of Respiration
  • Orthopnea
  • Tachypnea
  • Hyperventilation
animation respiration
Animation – Respiration

Click Here to play Respiration animation

effects of aging
Effects of Aging
  • Lung tissue loses elasticity
  • Rib cage becomes less flexible
  • Muscle strength decreases
  • Functioning alveoli decrease
disorders infectious causes
Disorders Infectious Causes
  • Common cold
  • Pharyngitis
  • Laryngitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Bronchitis and chronic bronchitis
disorders infectious causes1
Disorders Infectious Causes
  • Influenza (flu)
  • Pneumonia
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis (whooping cough)
disorders infectious causes2
Disorders Infectious Causes
  • Anthrax
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
disorders noninfectious causes
Disorders Noninfectious Causes
  • Rhinitis
  • Asthma
  • Athelectasis
  • Asbestosis
  • Silicosis
  • Nasal polyps
disorders noninfectious causes1
Disorders Noninfectious Causes
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Cancer of the lungs
  • Cancer of the larynx
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
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