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Chapter 17. Respiratory System. Respiratory System Functions. Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide Production of sound. Respiration . External respiration Internal respiration Cellular respiration or oxidation. Respiratory Organs and Structures. Nasal cavity Pharynx Larynx Trachea

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Presentation Transcript
Chapter 17

Chapter 17

Respiratory System


Respiratory system functions
Respiratory System Functions

  • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide

  • Production of sound


Respiration
Respiration

  • External respiration

  • Internal respiration

  • Cellular respiration or oxidation


Respiratory organs and structures
Respiratory Organs and Structures

  • Nasal cavity

  • Pharynx

  • Larynx

  • Trachea

  • Bronchi


Respiratory organs and structures1
Respiratory Organs and Structures

  • Bronchioles

  • Alveoli

  • Lungs

  • Pleura

  • Mediastinum



The nasal cavity
The Nasal Cavity

  • Anterior nares or nostrils

  • Nasal septum

  • Turbinates or nasal conchae bones

  • Cilia

  • Olfactory nerve

  • Sinuses


The pharynx
The Pharynx

  • Also called the throat

  • Common passageway for food and air

  • Nasopharynx

  • Oropharynx

  • Laryngopharynx

  • Epiglottis


The larynx
The Larynx

  • Also called voice box

  • Nine fibrocartilaginous plates

  • Mucous membrane

  • Glottis


The trachea
The Trachea

  • Also called windpipe

  • Hyaline cartilage

  • Mucous membrane and ciliated epithelium

  • Damage caused by smoking


The bronchi and the bronchioles
The Bronchi and the Bronchioles

  • Right and left bronchus

    • Ciliated epithelium

    • Hyaline cartilage

  • Bronchi subdivide into bronchioles

  • Alveolar sacs (alveoli)


  • The alveoli
    The Alveoli

    • Sacs of single layer epithelial tissue

    • Surrounded by bed of capillaries

    • Surfactant

    • Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide


    The lungs
    The Lungs

    • Separated by the mediastinum and the heart

    • Apex is top of each lung; broad lower part is base

    • Base rests over the diaphragm

    • Right lung has three lobes; left lung has two lobes


    The pleura
    The Pleura

    • A thin, moist, slippery membrane of tough endothelial cells that covers lungs

    • Each lung encased in double-walled sac

    • Pleurisy

    • Pleural fluid

    • Thoracentesis

    • Pneumothorax


    The mediastinum
    The Mediastinum

    • Also called the interpleural space

    • Located between the lungs

    • Contains the thoracic viscera


    Mechanics of breathing
    Mechanics of Breathing

    • Pulmonary ventilation is called breathing

    • Due to changes in pressure which occur within the chest cavity

    • Variation in pressure caused by cellular respiration and mechanical breathing movements


    The breathing process
    The Breathing Process

    • Inhalation/inspiration

    • Exhalation/expiration

    • Respiratory movements and frequency of respiration


    Control of breathing
    Control of Breathing

    • Neural factors

    • Chemical factors


    Lung capacity and volume
    Lung Capacity and Volume

    • Tidal volume

    • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

    • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

    • Vital lung capacity


    Lung capacity and volume1
    Lung Capacity and Volume

    • Residual volume

    • Functional residual capacity

    • Total lung capacity


    Types of respiration
    Types of Respiration

    • Apnea

    • Dyspnea

    • Eupnea

    • Hyperpnea


    Types of respiration1
    Types of Respiration

    • Orthopnea

    • Tachypnea

    • Hyperventilation


    Animation respiration
    Animation – Respiration

    Click Here to play Respiration animation


    Effects of aging
    Effects of Aging

    • Lung tissue loses elasticity

    • Rib cage becomes less flexible

    • Muscle strength decreases

    • Functioning alveoli decrease


    Disorders infectious causes
    Disorders Infectious Causes

    • Common cold

    • Pharyngitis

    • Laryngitis

    • Sinusitis

    • Bronchitis and chronic bronchitis


    Disorders infectious causes1
    Disorders Infectious Causes

    • Influenza (flu)

    • Pneumonia

    • Tuberculosis (TB)

    • Diphtheria

    • Pertussis (whooping cough)


    Disorders infectious causes2
    Disorders Infectious Causes

    • Anthrax

    • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)


    Disorders noninfectious causes
    Disorders Noninfectious Causes

    • Rhinitis

    • Asthma

    • Athelectasis

    • Asbestosis

    • Silicosis

    • Nasal polyps


    Disorders noninfectious causes1
    Disorders Noninfectious Causes

    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    • Cancer of the lungs

    • Cancer of the larynx

    • Pulmonary embolism

    • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)


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