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Competency: 204.00 Draw Foundation Plans. Objective: 204.03 Explain footing and foundation wall construction. Footings. Wider than foundation wall Purpose Spread entire load of structure over wider area Prevents uneven settlement. Determine Footing Sizes. Live loads include movable items

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competency 204 00 draw foundation plans

Competency: 204.00Draw Foundation Plans

Objective: 204.03

Explain footing and foundation wall construction.

footings
Footings
  • Wider than foundation wall
  • Purpose
    • Spread entire load of structure over wider area
    • Prevents uneven settlement
determine footing sizes
Determine Footing Sizes
  • Live loads include movable items
    • People
    • Wind
    • Snow
    • Furniture
  • Dead loads include all of the structure construction materials
  • Different soil types
    • Support varying loads
footings1
Footings
  • Generally made of poured concrete
    • Trench shapes footing
    • Forms constructed for unstable soils
    • Concrete withstands heavy loads
    • Steel rebar adds support
footing design construction
Footing Design & Construction
  • Proper design & construction of utmost importance
  • Larger footings
    • Aid in prevention of uneven settlement
  • Different loading conditions
    • May cause uneven settlement
footing design construction1
Footing Design & Construction
  • Effects of uneven settlement
    • Doors & windows stick
    • Cracks in finish materials
    • Leaks in plumbing
    • Structural element failure
frost line
Frost line
  • Depth to which the ground will freeze
    • Depth varies with geographic location
    • Local codes specify minimum footing depth
  • Footing placed below frost line
    • Ground freezes & thaws
      • Expands and contracts
    • Footing above frost line will be pushed upward
      • Causes cracks in foundation
foundation wall
Foundation Wall
  • Extends from footing upward to first floor
  • Commonly used materials
    • Poured concrete
    • Concrete block
    • Brick
    • Tile
foundation wall poured concrete
Foundation WallPoured Concrete
  • Composition
    • Cement
    • Water
    • Stone or other aggregrate
  • Use key to tie walls to poured footing
foundation walls concrete block
Foundation WallsConcrete Block
  • Most common CMU
    • Nominal size: 8”high x 8”thick x 16” long
    • Actual size: 7-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 15-3/8” with 3/8” mortar joint
    • Thickness: 4”, 8”, 10”, 12”
    • Styles
      • 2 & 3 core stretchers
      • Solids
      • Lintels
      • Corner
      • Pilaster
      • Jamb blocks
foundation walls
Foundation Walls
  • Thickness varies
    • Construction factors
    • Local codes
    • Soil conditions
  • Shape is designed to handle horizontal earth movement
    • Lateral earth shifting causes damage
foundation walls1
Foundation Walls
  • Require damp proofing
    • Heavy coats of tar or cement based paint
    • Thin coats of parging
    • Drain tile
      • Perforated pipe surrounds structure
      • Washed gravel holds back soil; allows water to enter pipe
      • Water is directed away from foundation
foundation walls2
Foundation Walls
  • Polyethylene sheeting
    • Thickness measured in millimeters (mils)
    • 6 mil most common
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