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Origin of Solar System. Lecture 15. Key Propertie s of our Solar System. Any theory of the origin of the solar system must be able to explain following key properties in the simplest manner. Sizes and compositions of terrestrial planets versus Jovian planets

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key propertie s of our solar system
Key Properties of our Solar System

Any theory of the origin of the solar system must be able to explain following key properties in the simplest manner.

  • Sizes and compositions of terrestrial planets versus Jovian planets
  • Direction and orientations of planetary orbits
  • Sizes of terrestrial planet orbits versus Jovian planet orbits
slide3

There are 103 elements known to exist.

Yet, all known life forms are mainly based on C, H, O, & N, and most advanced organisms are using H2O! Why?

Why shouldn’t there be life forms with iron skeleton and using methanol?

origin of the elements
Origin of the Elements

After Big Bang, lightest elements (H, He, Li, Be) were created, but only for a limited time period (3 to 20 minutes).

92% H + 8% He and almost no other elements.

creation of the elements nuclear synthesis
Creation of the Elements(Nuclear Synthesis)

Hydrogen burning :

4 Hydrogens Helium + energy

US yearly energy consumption:

1.107×1020 Joules

= can light Sanford stadium for 100 billion years!

= can be produced from a fusion of mere 80lb of Hydrogen!

  • Hydrogen “burning” = the main energy source of stars over long, long time (e.g., for Sun, 10 billion years).
cosmic abundance
Cosmic abundance

Not much Li (H+He), Be, B (Be+H or He+Li)…

  • Later stages of Nuclear fusions in Stars
angular momentum conservation
Angular Momentum Conservation

Spinning sphere

Spinning Figure Skater

formation of planetary system nebular theory
Formation of Planetary System (nebular theory)

collapsed to a nearly 1/1,000,000 of the initial size

  • Contraction and disk formation

Once the collapse begins, nebula would heat up, spin faster, and flatten…

Conservation of Energy (heating up) : gravitational potential energy  heat energy

Conservation of angular momentum (spinning up)

formation of planetary system
Formation of Planetary System
  • Condensation (opposite of melting) :

High temperatures in the inner region  materials only with high condensation temperatures can turn to solids (metals and rocks).

Outer region is much cooler  materials with lower condensation temperatures can turn to solids also (ices, rocks and metals)  more solids than the inner region!

Hydrogen and Helium remain as gas everywhere in the disk.

formation of planetary system1
Formation of Planetary System
  • Accretion of solids

Pebbles  rocks  boulders  … planetesimals (~100 km size)

… this process over a few million years…

  • Collisions b/w planetesimals(some stuck, some shatter)
  • Formation of rocky planets (inner) and some ice-rocky planets (outer)
  • Gas accretion in the outer area (why not inner?)  Jovian planets!
formation of planetary system2
Formation of Planetary System
  • Moon formations around Jovian planets

 in a disk surrounding a Jovian planet (similar to the way planets are formed)…

formation of planetary system3
Formation of Planetary System
  • Clearing the Disk

Remaining gas will be blown away by solar wind…

Rocks remain, but gradually being cleared by planets or collide among themselves…

is this happening at other stars
Is this happening at other stars?

Y E S !

Young stars in their early formation showing a disk (dark shade)

planetary system formation simulation
Planetary system formation simulation

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhYEQgLW5NM

in summary
In summary…

Important Concepts

Important Terms

cosmic abundance

solar nebula

condensation

protoplanetary disk

  • Planet formation (nebular hypothesis)
  • Conservation of Energy
  • Conservation of angular momentum
  • Ordered structure of planets is a natural outcome of planet formation.
  • Chapter/sections covered in this lecture : sections 8-1,8-2, & 8-4
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